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QUALITY MGT

Masum
Textile Management & Business Studies Bangladesh University of Textiles

Quality Management
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES

Techniques

quality management system Total quality management standard operating procedure First Article Inspection Corrective action and preventive action continual improvement process Cleaner production Business process management Benchmarking Analytical quality control 3 P Approach Six Sigma

Business process re

engineering The theory of constraints Zero Defects Verification and validation Requirements analysis quality circle Statistical process control ISO 9000 family Kaizen Lean manufacturing Good Automated Manufacturing Practice good manufacturing practice

Quality Management System


A quality management system (QMS) can be expressed as the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management QMS has tended to converge with sustainability and transparency initiatives, as both investor and customer satisfaction and perceived quality is increasingly tied to these factors

QMS elements
Organizational structure Responsibilities Methods Data Management

Processes - including purchasing


Resources - including natural resources and human capital Customer Satisfaction Continuous Improvement Product Quality Maintenance Sustainability - including efficient resource use and responsible

environmental operations Transparency and independent audit

Total Quality Management


TQM is an integrative philosophy of management for continuously improving the quality of products and processes. the nine common TQM practices are cross-functional product design process management supplier quality management customer involvement information and feedback committed leadership strategic planning cross-functional training, and employee involvement

standard operating procedure

An SOP is a written document or instruction detailing all steps and activities of a process or procedure. ISO 9001 essentially requires the documentation of all procedures used in any manufacturing process that could affect the quality of the product

Six Sigma
Six Sigma seeks to improve the quality of process outputs by identifying and removing the causes of defects (errors) and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes. It uses a set of quality management methods, including statistical methods. A six sigma process is one in which 99.99966% of the products manufactured are statistically expected to be free of defects (3.4 defects per million).

3 P Approach
Process- Process audits and statistical process control are two important tools that practitioners can use for process monitoring. Product- Of course, monitoring product quality is important, especially when the product is consumed. People- People are an important part of the quality system. They need to be assessed and trained on the latest requirements of process and product quality as required by the customers and market.

Analytical quality control

AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision

Benchmarking

Benchmarking is the process of comparing one's business processes and performance metrics to industry bests or best practices from other industries. Dimensions typically measured are quality, time and cost.

Business process management

BPM is a holistic management approach focused on aligning all aspects of an organization with the wants and needs of clients. It promotes business effectiveness and efficiency while striving for innovation, flexibility, and integration with technology

Cleaner production

CP is a preventive, company-specific environmental protection initiative. It is intended to minimize waste and emissions and maximize product output. By analysing the flow of materials and energy in a company, one tries to identify options to minimize waste and emissions out of industrial processes through source reduction strategies.

continual improvement process

(CIP or CI), also often called a continuous improvement process (usage preference discussed below), is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at once.

Corrective action and preventive action

CAPA are improvements to an organization's processes taken to eliminate causes of non-conformities or other undesirable situations. CAPA is a concept within good manufacturing practice (GMP). It focuses on the systematic investigation of the root causes of nonconformities in an attempt to prevent their recurrence (for corrective action) or to prevent occurrence (for preventive action).

First Article Inspection

First Article Inspection is one of the primary methods for the "inspection and testing of vendor components." The testing of a pre-production sample is considered essential in the process of approving an order or contract; the first article inspection should determine if the product meets acceptance requirements and quality control requirements

good manufacturing practice

GMP is a production and testing practice that helps to ensure a quality product. Many countries have legislated that pharmaceutical and medical device companies must follow GMP procedures, and have created their own GMP guidelines that correspond with their legislation

Good Automated Manufacturing Practice

GAMP Guide for Validation of Automated Systems in Pharmaceutical Manufacture describes a set of principles and procedures that help ensure that pharmaceutical products have the required quality. One of the core principles of GAMP is that quality cannot be tested into a batch of product but must be built into each stage of the manufacturing process

Lean manufacturing
"Lean," is a production practice that considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end customer to be wasteful Essentially, lean is centered on preserving value with less work

TPS is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve overall customer value, but there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved

Kaizen
Japanese for "improvement", or "change for the better" refers to philosophy or practices that focus upon continuous improvement of processes in manufacturing, engineering, game development, and business management When used in the business sense and applied to the workplace, kaizen refers to activities that continually improve all functions, and involves all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers

ISO 9000

The ISO 9000 family of standards are related to quality management systems and designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders. The standards are published by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, and available through National standards bodies while meeting statutory and regulatory requirements

Statistical process control

SPC is the application of statistical methods to the monitoring and control of a process to ensure that it operates at its full potential to produce conforming product. Under SPC, a process behaves predictably to produce as much conforming product as possible with the least possible waste Key tools in SPC are control charts, a focus on continuous improvement and designed experiments

quality circle
A quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students), usually under the leadership of their supervisor (but they can elect a team leader), who are trained to identify, analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order to improve the performance of the organization, and motivate and enrich the work of employees The term quality circles derives from the concept of PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) circles developed by Dr. W. Edwards Deming

Requirements analysis
Requirements analysis in systems engineering and software engineering, encompasses those tasks that go into determining the needs or conditions to meet for a new or altered product, taking account of the possibly conflicting requirements of the various stakeholders, such as beneficiaries or users. Requirements:
Customer Requirements Architectural Requirements Structural Requirements Behavioral Requirements Functional Requirements Non-functional Requirements Performance Requirements Design Requirements Derived Requirements Allocated Requirements

Verification and validation


Verification and validation are independent procedures that are used together for checking that a product, service, or system meets requirements and specifications and that it fulfills its intended purpose Verification of machinery and equipment usually consists of: Design Qualification DQ, Installation Qualification IQ, Operational Qualification OQ and Performance Qualification PQ.

Zero Defects
it has been primarily adopted within industry supply chains wherever large volumes of components are being purchased. The principles of the methodology are four-fold: 1. Quality is conformance to requirements 2. Defect prevention is preferable to quality inspection and correction 3. Zero Defects is the quality standard 4. Quality is measured in monetary terms the Price of Nonconformance (PONC)

The theory of constraints

A chain is no stronger than its weakest link. This means that processes, organizations, etc., are vulnerable because the weakest person or part can always damage or break them or at least adversely affect the outcome

Business process re-engineering

Business process re-engineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an organization. aim to integrate a wide number of business functions. Enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, knowledge management systems, groupware and collaborative systems, Human Resource Management Systems and customer relationship management.

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Masum Textile Management & Business Studies Bangladesh University of Textiles