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Gopalakrishnan Frezgaile Gomes Farhat Fatima

If all my possessions were taken from me with one exception, I would hope to keep my power of communication --- for by it I would regain all the rest.
- Daniel webster

Communication is the activity of conveying information. Communication has been derived from the Latin word "communis", meaning to share. Communication requires a sender, a message, and an intended recipient

Communication Is :
Transactional Complex Unavoidable Continuous Learned

Components of communication process

Sender-Encoder Message Medium Receiver-decoder


Components of communicaton process

Components of communication process continued ..

Context: Communication is affected by the context in

which it takes place. This context may be physical, social, chronological or cultural. Every communication proceeds with context. The sender chooses the message to communicate within a context.

Sender :as a sender-encoder you use symbols that

express your message and create the desired response .

Message - Message is a key idea that the sender wants

to communicate. It is a sign that elicits the response of recipient. Communication process begins with deciding about the message to be conveyed. It must be ensured that the main objective of the message is clear.

Components of communication process continued ..

Medium : Medium is a means used to exchange /

transmit the message.

Receiver-Decoder: Recipient / Decoder is a

person for whom the message is intended / aimed / targeted. The degree to which the decoder understands the message is dependent upon various factors such as knowledge of recipient, their responsiveness to the message, and the reliance of encoder on decoder.

Feedback: Feedback is the main component of

communication process as it permits the sender to analyze the efficacy of the message.

Levels of Communication

Interpersonal communication

Intrapersonal communication

Interpersonal communication

Interpersonal communication:
Interpersonal communication is usually defined by communication scholars in numerous ways, usually describing participants who are dependent upon one another. It can involve one on one conversations or individuals interacting with many people within a society.

Intrapersonal communication :

The language used or thought internal to the communicator. It can be useful to envision intrapersonal communication occurring in the mind of the individual in a model which contains a sender, receiver, and feedback loop.

Barriers to effective Communication

Physical barriers : communication can be affected

by physical barriers like nature of the environment

System design :

faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organisation.

Attitudinal barriers:

come about as a result of problems with staff in an organisation. These may be brought about, for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate.

Barriers to effective Communication

Psychological factors: such as people's state of

mind. We all tend to feel happier and more receptive to information when the sun shines. Equally, if someone has personal problems like worries about their health or marriage, then this will probably affect them.

Different languages: Different languages and

cultures represent a national barrier which is particularly important for organisations involved in overseas business

Physiological barriers:may result from

individuals' personal discomfort, caused, for example, by ill health, poor eye sight or hearing difficulties.



Eliminating differences in perception: The

organization should ensure that it is recruiting right individuals on the job. Its the responsibility of the interviewer to ensure that the interviewee has command over the written and spoken language. There should be proper Induction program so that the policies of the company are clear to all the employees.

Reduction and elimination of noise levels: Noise is the main communication barrier which must
be overcome on priority basis. It is essential to identify the source of noise and then eliminate that source.


Active Listening: Listen attentively and carefully.

There is a difference between listening and hearing. Active listening means hearing with proper understanding of the message that is heard. By asking questions the speaker can ensure whether his/her message is understood or not by the receiver in the same terms as intended by the speaker.

Emotional State: During communication one should

make effective use of body language. He/she should not show their emotions while communication as the receiver might misinterpret the message being delivered. For example, if the conveyer of the message is in a bad mood then the receiver might think that the information being delivered is not good.


Simple Organizational Structure: The

organizational structure should not be complex. The number of hierarchical levels should be optimum. There should be a ideal span of control within the organization. Simpler the organizational structure, more effective will be the communication.

Avoid Information Overload: The managers

should know how to prioritize their work. They should not overload themselves with the work. They should spend quality time with their subordinates and should listen to their problems and feedbacks actively.


Give Constructive Feedback: Avoid giving

negative feedback. The contents of the feedback might be negative, but it should be delivered constructively. Constructive feedback will lead to effective communication between the superior and subordinate.

Proper Media Selection: The managers should

properly select the medium of communication. Simple messages should be conveyed orally, like: face to face interaction or meetings. Use of written means of communication should be encouraged for delivering complex messages. For significant messages reminders can be given by using written means of communication such as : Memos, Notices etc.


Flexibility in meeting the targets: For

effective communication in an organization the managers should ensure that the individuals are meeting their targets timely without skipping the formal channels of communication. There should not be much pressure on employees to meet their targets.

Have integrity and honesty in your communications: If you are seen as being
someone who lacks integrity, this will immediately be noticed and even more barriers will be built up between you and the listener.


http://www.m-t-d.co.uk/blog/7-ways-to-overcome-barriers-tocommunication.htm http://www.managementstudyguide.com/overcomingcommunication-barriers.htm