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# Development Length

CE A433 RC Design
T. Bart Quimby, P.E., Ph.D.
Revised Spring 2009
Consider a bar embedded in a
mass of concrete
P = t*[L
b
*t*d
b
]
P = o * [t*d
b
2
/4]
t = P / [L
b
*t*d
b
] < t
max
P < t
max
* [L
b
*t*d
b
]
o = P/ [t*d
b
2
/4] < o
max
P < o
max
* [t*d
b
2
/4]
To force the bar to be the weak link: t
max
* [L
b
*t*d
b
] > o
max
* [t*d
b
2
/4]
L
b
> (o
max
/ t
max
)* [d
b
/4]
L
b
d
b
Development Length
L
d
= development length
the shortest distance over which a bar can achieve its
full capacity
The length that it takes a bar to develop its full
contribution to the moment capacity, M
n
C
c
T
s
M
n
= (C or T)*(dist)
M
n
0

L
d
Steel Limit, o
max
Using the bilinear assumption of ACI 318:
o
max
= + f
y

L
b
> (f
y
/ t
max
)* [d
b
/4]
L
b
> f
y
* d
b
/ (4*t
max
)

Concrete Bond Limit, t
max
There are lots of things that affect t
max
The strength of the concrete, f
c
Type of concrete (normal weight or light weight)
The amount of concrete below the bar
The surface condition of the rebar
The concrete cover on the bar
The proximity of other bars transferring stress to the
concrete
The presence of transverse steel
Concrete Strength, f
c
Bond strength, t
max
, tends to increase with
concrete strength.
Experiments have shown this relationship
to be proportional to the square root of f
c
.

Type of Concrete
Light weight concrete tends to have less
bond strength than does normal weight
concrete.
ACI 318-08 introduces a lightweight
concrete reduction factor, , on sqrt(f
c
) in
some equations.
See ACI 318-08, 8.6.1 for details
Amount of Concrete Below Bars
The code refers to top
bars as being any bar
which has 12 inches or
more of fresh concrete
below the bar when the
member is poured.
If concrete > 12 then
consolidation settlement
results in lower bond
strength on the bottom side
of the bar
See ACI 318-08, 12.2.4(a)
Surface Condition of Rebar
All rebar must meet ASTM requirements
for deformations that increase pullout
strength.
Bars are often surface coated is inhibit
corrosion.
Epoxy Coating The major concern!
Galvanizing
Epoxy coating significantly reduces bond
strength
See ACI 318-08, 12.2.4(b)
Proximity to Surface or Other Bars
The size of the concrete cylinder tributary to
each bar is used to account for proximity of
surfaces or other bars.
2D 3D
Presence of Transverse Steel
The bond transfer tends to cause a splitting plane
Transverse steel will increase the strength of the
splitting plane.
See text for other possible splitting locations
The ACI 318-08 Development
Length Equation (ACI 318-08 12.2)
b
b
tr b
s e t
c
y
d
d
d
K c
f
f
L
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
'
=
5 . 2 , min
) 7 . 1 , min(
40
3

sn
A
K
tr
tr
40
=
The Modifiers

t
, Modifier for reinforcement location
1.3 for top bars, 1.0 for other bars

e
, modifier for epoxy coated bars
1.5 when cover < 3d
b
or clear spacing < 6d
b
1.2 for other epoxy coated reinforcing
1.0 for non-epoxy coated reinforcing
The product,
t

e
, need not exceed 1.7
More Modifiers

s
, Modifier for bar size
0.8 for #6 and smaller
1.0 for #7 and larger
, Modifier for lightweight concrete
ACI 318-08, 8.6.1
= 1.0 for normal weight concrete
as low as 0.75 for the lightest weight
concrete
The Transverse Reinforcement
Index, K
tr
(ACI 318-08 Eq. 12-2)

A
tr
= total cross sectional area of
all transverse reinforcement which
is within the spacing, s, and which
crosses the potential plane of
splitting through the
reinforcement being developed.
s = maximum C-C spacing of
transverse reinforcement within
the development length
n = number of longitudinal bars
being developed along the plane
of splitting.
sn
A
K
tr
tr
40
=
The outer bars are #10, the center one is #6, the others are #8
Other Development Lengths
Development in Compression: ACI 318-08
12.3
Development of standard hooks in
tension: ACI 318-08 12.5
There are some very specific cover and/or
confinement requirements
Mechanical connectors (such as bearing
plates at the beam ends) may also be
used.
Effect on Moment Capacity
Moment Capacity, |M
n
, is a function of x
If different bars develop differently then
you need to look at the contribution that
each bar makes to the moment capacity
Moment Capacity Diagram
Moment Capacity
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
X (in)
p
h
i
P
m

(
f
t
-
k
)
Cutting Bars
The |M
n
diagram can be made to more closely
fit the M
u
diagram by terminating or cutting bars
when they are no longer needed. (ACI 318-08
12.10.3)
Moment Capacity
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
X (in)
p
h
i
P
m

(
f
t
-
k
)
End of #6 bar
End of #8 bars
End of #10 bars
> max(d, 12d
b
)
> max(d, 12d
b
)
Beam Profile Showing Bar Cutoff
Locations