Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 27

Diagnosing Vocal Faults

Chapter 1

The Diagnostic Process

S From the moment you walk in, the doctor begins making

observations such as:


S Information from your handshake S Your voice S Your posture and overall appearance

S Etc.

The Diagnostic Process

S Self description of symptoms

The Diagnostic Process

S Testing
S Temperature, pulse rate, blood pressure, etc.
S Areas where trouble appears frequently (eyes, ears, nose,

throat, chest, heart)

The Diagnostic Process

1.

Informal observation of the patient

2.
3.

Self-evaluation by the patient


Systematic testing by the doctor

The Diagnostic Process

S Three questions about the patient:


1.
2. 3.

What are the symptoms? What are the causes of these symptoms? What are the possible remedies (cures)?

Identifying Vocal Problems

S A voice teacher must be able to change the students

vocal sound.
S Being able to change sounds implies that you know:
S The nature of sound S How musical instruments function S The relation of the vocal instrument to the physical

processes that govern it

Identifying Vocal Problems

S Know what good sounds are


S

Listen to recognized artists


S Vocal freedom S Tonal beauty

Many students do not know how they should sound

Identifying Vocal Problems

S Tonal ideal based on the physical laws of sound and the

tone quality of artist performers against which you can measure the sounds you are hearing

Voice Science and Vocal Art, Part One: In search of common ground
(article)

Credits McKinney for showing a means of transmission of technical knowledge from teacher to student

Helding, L. (2007). Voice science and vocal art, part one: In search of common ground. Journal of Singing - the Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, 64(2), 141150. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1403368?accountid=8459

Vocal Mechanics
(article)

S Examines Vocal Mechanics in more detail

Reed, C. L. (1997). Vocal mechanics. Journal of Singing the Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, 54(1), 11-18. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1401688?accountid=84 59

Identifying Vocal Problems

S Communicate your analysis to your student in a way that he or

she will accept it and want to make the desired change.


S To do this well you must have: 1. Comprehensive knowledge of the vocal mechanism and how it works 2. Ability to express yourself in terms the student can understand 3. Some of the skills of a master psychologist
S

Tell a student that his tone is less than perfect without hurting his feelings to such an extent that inhibitory patterns are set up S Positive terms S Be aware and respect personal feelings of each person

Diagnosis in the Teaching Studio


S Every student taught differently S There are no magical formulas which solve all problems S Systematic approach to diagnosing vocal faults S Keep record of each student
S S S S S S

Problems encountered Corrective techniques attempted Results achieved Literature assigned Memorization Etc.

Diagnosis in the Teaching Studio


1.

Informal observation of the student

2.
3.

Self-evaluation by the student


Systematic analysis by the teacher

Diagnosis in the Teaching Studio


1.

Informal observation of the student


S Watch for: S Stance S Posture S Presence or absence of tension or nervous mannerisms S Quality of speaking voice and fluency of delivery S Command of language and freedom of expression S Apparent attitude toward you S Mental alertness S Etc.

Diagnosis in the Teaching Studio


1.

Self-evaluation by the student


S
S S S S

What are your goals as a singer? What do you hope to gain from studying with me? What previous vocal training have you had? Are you aware of any specific vocal problems that you have? What kind of songs do you most enjoy singing?

Diagnosis in the Teaching Studio


1.
S

Systematic analysis by the teacher


Have your student sing while you make a systematic analysis of his voice production and other pertinent factors.
S

Checklist can be helpful S Can check: S Vibrato S Phonation S Intonation S Posture S Breathing S Support S Articulation S Etc.

Diagnosis in the Teaching Studio


S Systematic analysis by the teacher (cont.) S Bad sounds and incorrect pitches which are not heard on the

first hearing become increasingly less likely to be heard with each subsequent hearing S The longer you teach a student without correcting a particular vocal fault, the more inclined you are to accept it as an inborn characteristic of that person and leave it uncorrected After listening to the student sing, find something positive about the performance to say before noting any vocal faults

The Classification of Vocal Faults


Ways to classify vocal faults
1.

Relation to the essential properties or elements of a musical sound


S S S S S

Faults related to pitch Faults related to intensity Faults related to duration Faults related to timbre Faults related to sonance

The Classification of Vocal Faults


Ways to classify vocal faults
2.

Relation to the physical processes involved in the singing act


S S S S

Faults related to respiration Faults related to phonation Faults related to resonation Faults related to articulation

The Classification of Vocal Faults


Ways to classify vocal faults
3.

Part of Vocal Mechanism


S S S S

Faults of the tongue Faults of the jaw Faults of the lips Faults of the soft palate

The Classification of Vocal Faults


Ways to classify vocal faults
4.

Relation to Vocal Technique


S Range extension S Registers S Vibrato S Flexibility S Legato S Dynamics

The Classification of Vocal Faults


S Sub-categories of types of vocal faults:
S Hypofunction
S

Faults in which there is not enough activity of the mechanism involved

S Hyperfunction
S

Faults in which there is too much activity or too much tension overuse

A Plan of Action

Three questions about the student:


1.
2.

1.

What is wrong with the sound I am hearing? (recognize symptoms) What is causing it to sound that way? (determine causes) What am I going to do about it? (devise cures)

A Plan of Action
Recognizing Symptoms
S Audible Clues S Breathiness, Nasality, Vibrato, Intonation, Hoarseness, Volume level S Elements of vocal technique such as flexibility, diction, legato, range, and evenness of scale S Tone quality and resonance
S Visible Clues S Postural rigidity S Collapsed chest S Tight jaw S Furrowed brow S Raised shoulders S Tilted head S White knuckles S Knees locked back S Shaking legs S Heaving chest

A Plan of Action

Determining Causes
S Knowledge of the vocal mechanism and the physics of

sound
S There are natural singers who are excellent singers who are

ignorant of how the voice works, but they are usually poor voice teachers

The Use of Empathy

Devise Cures
S Empathy S Try to feel in your own vocal mechanism the actions that are taking place in the student S Applied knowledge and gained experience S Accumulate as many cures as possible for each vocal fault. S Keep trying S Be resourceful, be creative, adapt your techniques, consult other teachers; keep searching until you find an answer.