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5.

ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE
STRUCTURES BY FORCE METHOD
5.1 ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES
BY FORCE METHOD - AN OVERVIEW

• 5.1 ANALYSIS OF INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES BY FORCE


METHOD - AN OVERVIEW
• 5.2 INTRODUCTION
• 5.3 METHOD OF CONSISTENT DEFORMATION
• 5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAMS
• 5.5 INDETRMINATE BEAMS WITH MULTIPLE DEGREES OF
INDETERMINACY
• 5.6 TRUSS STRUCTURES
• 5.7 TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND FABRICATION ERRORS
5.2 INTRODUCTION

5.2 Introduction
• While analyzing indeterminate structures, it is necessary to satisfy (force)
equilibrium, (displacement) compatibility and force-displacement relationships
• (a) Force equilibrium is satisfied when the reactive forces hold the structure in
stable equilibrium, as the structure is subjected to external loads
• (b) Displacement compatibility is satisfied when the various segments of the
structure fit together without intentional breaks, or overlaps
• (c) Force-displacement requirements depend on the manner the material of the
structure responds to the applied loads, which can be linear/nonlinear/viscous
and elastic/inelastic; for our study the behavior is assumed to be linear and elastic
5.2 INTRODUCTION (Cont’d)

• Two methods are available to analyze indeterminate structures, depending on


whether we satisfy force equilibrium or displacement compatibility conditions -
They are: Force method and Displacement Method
• Force Method satisfies displacement compatibility and force-displacement
relationships; it treats the forces as unknowns - Two methods which we will be
studying are Method of Consistent Deformation and (Iterative Method of)
Moment Distribution
• Displacement Method satisfies force equilibrium and force-displacement
relationships; it treats the displacements as unknowns - Two available methods
are Slope Deflection Method and Stiffness (Matrix) method
5.3 METHOD OF CONSISTENT DEFORMATION

• Solution Procedure:
• (i) Make the structure determinate, by releasing the extra forces
constraining the structure in space
• (ii) Determine the displacements (or rotations) at the locations of released
(constraining) forces
• (iii) Apply the released (constraining) forces back on the structure (To
standardize the procedure, only a unit load of the constraining force is applied
in the +ve direction) to produce the same deformation(s) on the structure as
in (ii)
• (iv) Sum up the deformations and equate them to zero at the position(s) of
the released (constraining) forces, and calculate the unknown restraining
forces
Types of Problems to be dealt: (a) Indeterminate beams; (b) Indeterminate
trusses; and (c) Influence lines for indeterminate structures
5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAMS

5.4.1 Propped Cantilever - Redundant vertical reaction released

(i) Propped Cantilever: The structure is indeterminate to the first degree; hence
has one unknown in the problem.

(ii) In order to solve the problem, release the extra constraint and make the
beam a determinate structure. This can be achieved in two different ways,
viz., (a) By removing the vertical support at B, and making the beam a
cantilever beam (which is a determinate beam); or (b) By releasing the
moment constraint at A, and making the structure a simply supported beam
(which is once again, a determinate beam).
5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAMS (Cont’d)

(a) Release the vertical support at B:


y
P
P
x B B ∆′ BB=RB*fBB
C B
= ∆B + Applied in +ve
∆C direction
L/2 L/2 RB
L

The governing compatibility equation obtained at B is,


'
∆B+∆ BB = 0
∆B +( RB ) ×( f BB ) =0
∴RB =−∆B / f BB

From earlier analyses,


∆B =−P ( L / 2) 3 /(3EI ) +[−P ( L / 2) 2 /( 2 EI )] ×( L / 2)
=−PL3 /(24 EI ) −PL3 /(16 EI )
=−(5 / 48)( PL3 / EI )
f BB =L3 /(3EI )
R BB =−
[−(5 / 48)( PL3 / EI )] /[ L3 /(3EI )] =(5 / 16) P

fBB = displacement per unit load (applied in +ve direction)


5.4 INDETERMINATE BEAM (Cont’d)
5.4.2 Propped cantilever - Redundant support moment released
L/2 P
A
L
B =
(b) Release the moment constraint at a:
P A
A B +M θ′A=MAαAA
B
A
θA Redundant MA applied
Primary structure
Governing compatibility equation obtained at A is,
θ+ A (α) =
(M ) × A , α = rotation per unit moment
AA AA

θ

MA =−A
α
AA

2
From known earlier analysis, θ =−(16PLEI ) [under a central concentrated
AA

load]
α
AA =−
(1)[ L /(3EI )]

This is due to the fact that +ve moment causes a –ve rotation
MA =−
[−PL2 /(16 EI)] /[−
L/(3 EI)]
=−
(3 / 16) PL
5.4.3 OVERVIEW OF METHOD OF
CONSISTENT DEFORMATION
To recapitulate on what we have done earlier,
I. Structure with single degree of indeterminacy:
P
A B
RB
(a) Remove the redundant to make the structure determinate (primary
structure)
P
A B
∆Bo
(b) Apply unit force on the structure, in the direction of the redundant,
and find the displacement

fBB

(c) Apply compatibility at the location of the removed redundant


∆B0 + fBB×RB = 0
5.5 INDETERMINATE BEAM WITH MULTIPLE DEGREES
OF INDETERMINACY

w/u.l

A E
B C D

RB RC RD

∆B0 ∆C0 ∆D0

(a) Make the structure determinate (by releasing the supports at B, C and
D) and determine the deflections at B, C and D in the direction of removed
redundants, viz., ∆ BO, ∆ CO and ∆ DO
(b) Apply unit loads at B, C and D, in a sequential manner and
determine deformations at B, C and D, respectively.

A
B C D E
fBB fCB fDB
1

A
B C D E
fBC fCC
1 fDC

A
B C D E
fBD fCD fDD
1
(c ) Establish compatibility conditions at B, C and D

∆ BO + fBBRB + fBCRC + fBDRD = 0

∆ CO + fCBRB + fCCRC + fCDRD = 0

∆ DO + fDBRB + fDCRC + fDDRD = 0


5.4.2 When support settlements occur:

w / u. l.

A E
B C D

∆B ∆C ∆D Support settlements

Compatibility conditions at B, C and D give the following equations:

∆ BO + fBBRB + fBCRC + fBDRD = ∆ B

∆ CO + fCBRB + fCCRC + fCDRD = ∆ C

∆ DO + fDBRB + fDCRC + fDDRD = ∆ D


5.5 TRUSS STRUCTURES

80 kN
80 kN
60 kN
C 60 kN
C

D
D
A B
A 1 2 B

Primary structure

(a) (a) Remove the redundant member (say AB) and make the structure
a primary determinate structure
The condition for stability and indeterminacy is:
r+m>=<2j,
Since, m = 6, r = 3, j = 4, (r + m =) 3 + 6 > (2j =) 2*4 or 9 > 8 ∴ i = 1
5.5 Truss Structures (Cont’d)

(b)Find deformation ∆ ABO along AB:


∆ABO =Σ (F0uABL)/AE
F0 = Force in member of the primary structure due to applied load
uAB= Forces in members due to unit force applied along AB
(c) Determine deformation along AB due to unit load applied along AB:
u2 L
f =∑ AB
AB, AB AE

(d) Apply compatibility condition along AB:


∆ABO+fAB,ABFAB=0

(d) Hence determine FAB


(e) Determine the individual member forces in a particular member
CE by

FCE = FCE0 + uCE FAB

where FCE0 = force in CE due to applied loads on primary structure


(=F0), and uCE = force in CE due to unit force applied along AB (= uAB)
5.6 TEMPERATURE CHANGES AND FABRICATION
ERROR

• Temperature changes affect the internal forces in a structure


• Similarly fabrication errors also affect the internal forces in a
structure
(i) Subject the primary structure to temperature changes and fabrication
errors. - Find the deformations in the redundant direction
(ii) Reintroduce the removed members back and make the deformation
compatible