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Introduction to computers

Definition
Accept data Process data to convert it into info that is useful to people Controlled by programmed instructions

Classification
Based on data representation Digital Analog Hybrid

Digital process data in terms of binary digits. Analog represent data as a variable point along a continuous spectrum of values. Hybrid exhibits features both analog and digital data

Digital computer
Accept and process data in terms of digital information such as 0s and 1s. Binary digit 1 represents presence of voltage/current and 0 represents absence of voltage/current. Series of eight consecutive bits is called byte. Series of byte represent data or instruction. Based on the instruction it can perform various task accurately and quickly. EXAMPLE: - PCs

Analog computer
Uses the continuously-changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.

Analog computer
Is classified based on
Use - general or specific-purpose Construction - hydraulic, mechanical, or electronic

Analog computer
Solve a problem - procedure
General analysis Data preparation Analog circuit development Patchboard programming.

Hybrid computers
Exhibits features both analog and digital data The digital component normally serves as the controller and provides logical operations, while the analog component normally serves as a solver of differential equations.

Hybrid computer

Parts of computer system


Hardware Software Data User

Hardware
Mechanical devices Able to touch and feel physically Consists of inter connected electronic devices - control computers operation, input, output

software
Set of instructions perform tasks System software computers use to help it perform tasks and manage its own resources Application software enables users to perform tasks

Data
Individual facts or pieces of info Primary job process tiny pieces of data I various ways converting them to useful info

Users
Computer operators Tasks - programming, creation of documents , etc. They are a part of computer because they are required to perform various functions with the help of computer.

ESSENTIAL COMPUTER HARDWARE


Computers hardware devices fall into 4 categories: Processor Memory Input & output Storage

ESSENTIAL COMPUTER HARDWARE


Input unit memory Output unit

Control Control unit unit CPU

ALU

ALU

PROCESSING DEVICES
Procedure that transforms raw data into useful information - processing. Uses two components - processor & memory Brain of the computer

PROCESSING DEVICES
Organizes & carries out instructions Consists of one or more specialized chips called microprocessors to complete or process instruction - passes electricity through the circuits. Motherboard connects processor to a hardware. Executes instructions with the help of control unit (CU) & arithmetic logic unit (ALU).

PROCESSING DEVICES
Control unit - controls & co-ordinates activities of all units by issuing proper commands. CU - issues proper commands to ALU, memory, i/p& o/p unit ALU responsible for arithmetic and logical operation

Memory devices
Memory is one or more sets of chips that store data & program instructions either temporarily or permanently. There are two types of memory:
a) RAM: Random access memory b) ROM: Read only memory.

Random access memory


Most common type Holds data and program instructions temporarily while CPU works with them Made up of a set of chips mounted on a small computer Volatile 256MB , 512MB or more

Read only memory


Permanent storage Non-volatile Stores directions that help computer start up and info about hardware device

Input and output devices


Input devices accept data & instruction from the user or from another computer Output device return processed data to the user or to another computer system. Common i/p device is keyboard - accepts letters, numbers and commands from user etc. Mouse important input device used to select options from on-screen menus

Input and output devices


Other input devices: Trackball & touchpad enable to draw or point on screen. Joystick for playing games. Scanner to copy a printed page of text or a graphic into computers, memory. Digital camera for still images. Stylus for directly writing on the screen.

Input and output devices


Microphone to i/p voice or music data. Most common o/p devices are monitor & printer. Touchscreen monitor can be considered as both i/p & o/p device because i/p is given by touching the screen & o/p is seen on the same screen.

Joystick

Trackball

Scanner

STORAGE DEVICES
The purpose of storage device is to hold data permanently. These data should not be erased when system is turned off.

Differences
Distinctions between storage and memory:
Capacity is more Contents are retained even when computer is shutdown Operate slower than memory chips

STORAGE DEVICES
Two types of storage devices are: a) Magnetic storage. b) Optical storage.

MAGNETIC STORAGE
The most commonly used storage device. The disk is a round, flat Read/write heads are used to read data and write data Device that holds disk is called a disk drive. Ex: Floppy

OPTICAL STORAGE
Devices that use lasers to read data from or write data to the reflective surface of an optical disc. Most commonly used are CD-ROM, DVD. 2 types :
CD-R CD-RW

OPTICAL STORAGE
CD-r which can be written only once. CD-RW which can erased and rewritten. Capacity 650 to 900 MB. In DVD the data can be stored even more compactly. Size varies from 4 GB to & 17GB.

Classification
Based on usage Computers for individual users Computers for organization

Computers for individual Users


Desktop Workstations Notebook Tablet computers Handheld computers Smart phones

These are examples of PC

Desktop Computers
Common schools, colleges, homes, offices Placed on top of a desk or table

Work station
Powerful microprocessor Large, high resolution monitor and accelerated graphics Large memory Greater processing speed Suitable to perform sophisticated tasks, advanced architectural design, animation, video editing Used by scientists, engineers and animators

Workstation

Notebook computers
Laptop computers Small size 8.5 by 11 inch Less weight less than 8 pounds Can operate on AC power or batteries Portable mobile computers

Tablet PC
Similar to notebook PC but lighter and accept input from special pen (stylus or digital pen) Portable Special software and microphone accept input user from users voice Fold out keyboard transformed to note book PC Specialized versions of standard programs connect to network

Tablet PC

Handheld PC
Fit into your hand Ex: Personal digital assistant (PDA) Used for special applications taking notes, displaying telephone numbers and addresses, keeping track of dates or agendas Can be connected to larger computer to exchange data

PDA

Smart phones
Is a mobile phone offering advanced capabilities, often with PC-like functionality Advanced features web, e-mail access Personal organizers, digital cameras, music players with miniature keyboard

Smart phones

Computers for organizations


Many users at a time More powerful Used by schools, colleges, business organizations, offices Classification
Network servers Minicomputers Mainframe computers Super computers

Network servers
Powerful PC with special software and equipment that enable it to function as the primary computer in the network which connects a group of PC

Mainframe computers
Large powerful systems Handle the processing needs of thousands of users Handle specific set of tasks Used in large organizations frequent use of same data by large numbers of users. Ex: banks, insurance companies Mainframes resource accessed through terminal

Mainframe computers
Two types of terminals
Dumb no processing or storing of data simple input /output device Intelligent some processing operations , no storage

Resources can also be accessed through PC

Mainframe computers

Mainframe computers

Minicomputers
Small size Capabilities between a mainframe and PC Also known as midrange computers Handle more input and output Can serve inputs and outputs of hundreds of users at a time

Minicomputers

Super computers
Largest and most powerful Process huge amount of data trillion calculations per second Can house thousands of processors Suitable for handling large and highly complex problems requiring extreme calculations Ex : weather forecasting, mapping of human genome, modeling complex processes like nuclear-fission.

Super computer

Applications
Important tools for working with info, for creating new info Home communication, official work, books etc. Education part of the curriculum Business Industry Government - population, taxes, military

Information processing cycle


Parts of computer convert data into useful info performing various actions

Ex: a mathematical operation on two numbers

Information processing cycle


the various activities that are followed by the computer to
Receive the data Process the data based on instructions Display the data Store the data

is called information processing cycle.

Information processing cycle


The pictorial representation is as follows:

Information processing cycle


4 parts Input Processing Output storage

Input
Accepts data Source user, program

Processing
Perform actions on the data Based on the instructions from the user or a program

Output
Displays the results May appear as text, numbers or graphics optional step

Storage
Stores the results of its processing on a disk, tape or any other storage medium.

Stored result can be accessed later

SOFTWARE BRINGS MACHINE TO LIFE


A set of instruction - drive a computer to perform specific tasks - program. When a computer uses particular program it is said to be running or executing that program. Two major categories of s/w are:
a) system software b) application software

System software
Any program that controls the computers hardware Any program that can be used to maintain the computer - runs more efficiently. Three basic types of system software are
Operating system Network operating system Utility

Operating system
Tells the computer how to use its own components. Acts as an intermediary between the hardware, application program and the user Its purpose is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs in a convenient manner Ex: Windows, LINUX, Solaris

Network operating system


Allows communication and sharing of data across a network Controls the network operations and overseeing the network security.

Utility
Is a program that makes the computer system easier to use Performs highly specialized functions. Manage disks, troubleshoot hardware problem Perform other tasks which operating system cannot do. Ex: disk storage utilities disk defragmenters, disk checkers, disk cleaners Anti-virus utilities

Application software
Tells computer how to accomplish specific task, such as word processing or drawing. Thousands of applications available for different purposes Major categories:
Word processor Spread sheets Database management software Presentations programs Graphics programs Multimedia software Web design tools and web browsers Games

Application software
Word processor creation of documents Spread sheets creation of numeric based documents Database management software building and manipulating large sets of data Presentations programs - creation and presentation of slides

Application software
Graphics programs designing and manipulation of photographs, movies or animation Multimedia software building of digital movies incorporates audio, video, animation and interactive features Web design tools and web browsers Games

Stored program concept


Earlier computers specific task was accomplished giving the instructions manually by connecting wires between various functional units. Tedious and time consuming More prone to error Overcome by Stored program concept introduces by Von Newmann Followed in all computers

Stored program concept


The set of instructions on how to perform the computation and the data required or generated by the computation are stored in a single storage structure . Such machines are also known as stored program computer

Stored program concept


Both program and data are stored in RAM. CPU fetches the instructions from memory and executes them one after another. Essential features of stored program concept: Computer has 4 functional units: input, output, memory and CPU consisting of CU and ALU

Stored program concept


The program in memory can automatically execute without manual intervention CU performs the following operations to ensure sequential execution of series of instructions :
Fetch - Obtain the next instructions to be executed from memory Decode - identify the action to be taken, translate to series of commands

Stored program concept


Execute - issue the proper command to the ALU to perform the desired operation Store - the results obtained after executing the program are stored in the memory

All these activities are continuously performed till the last instruction of the program

Stored program concept


Store memory Fetch Control unit Decode ALU

Execute

Computer languages
Different types:
- Machine languages - Assembly language - High level language

Machine language
Early computers were programmed in machine lang Lowest level of computer language recognized and used by the CPU. Expressed in terms of binary digits( 0s and 1s) Instruction prepared in any machine language consists of 2 parts The first part is the command or opcode or operation code

Machine language
The second part of the instruction is the operand/s or data and it tells the processor where to find or store the data or other instructions that are manipulated. A short sample of machine language to perform addition of two numbers 1001011 0110 10111101110011001010
Opcode for add reg which has one number addr of mem locn containing another number

Machine language
Machine language programmers must also be familiar with the internal organization of the computer and binary code for each operation A machine language programmer must also keep track of all the addresses of main memory locations that are referred to in the program writing machine language program is difficult for the humans.

Assembly language
Low level lang Uses abbreviations or mnemonic codes for operation codes and symbolic addresses Machine dependent mnemonics substitution for operation codes symbolic addressing Assigning and keeping track of instruction addresses handled by computer.

Translation
The mnemonics are converted into binaries - Assembler.

Assembly language

Assembler

Machine language

Assembly language
Ex: Consider an assembly language program MOV B,A MOV C,A HLT Machine language equivalent for the above assembly language is 0111001110 0111110000 1011100000

Assembly language
Relatively easy Programmer should know details of the architecture of the machine. Assembly language programs are not portable

Higher level languages


Instructions which are written using English like language Closer to natural language Ex: FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, PASCAL, PROLOG, C, C++ etc. Programmer need not know the h/w details

Higher level languages


Highly portable machine independent Programming easier and flexible the source program is translated into binary form - compiler or interpreter. C language uses a compiler as its translator to translate or compile the complete C program. .

Compiler
System software Convert the program instructions from human understandable form to the machine understandable form - object code. Entire program of the high level language -machine language. Every programming language requires its own compiler to translate the program.

Translation

High level language

Compiler

Machine language

Interpreter
Convert the source program to machine language instruction line by line The translation of the source program takes place for every run and is slower than the compiled code. An interpreter must accompany the object code to run a program. Programming languages BASIC and LISP use interpreters

Editor
System software enter text into a file and do manipulation on the text Ex: notepad It is also used to type the source program and store program in disk. C language uses Borlands a IDE (Integrated Development Environment) editor in MS-DOS system and in Vi editor in UNIX system.