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# EEB 311 (2013/2014)

## Electrical Network Theory

The Fourier Series
1. Introduction
2. Trigonometric Fourier Series
3. Symmetry Considerations
4. Circuit Applications

1
2
Previously, have considered analysis of circuits with
sinusoidal sources.
The Fourier series provides a means of analyzing
circuits with periodic non-sinusoidal excitations.
Fourier is a technique for expressing any practical
periodic function as a sum of sinusoids.
Fourier representation + superposition theorem,
allows to find response of circuits to arbitrary
periodic inputs using phasor techniques.
Introduction
3
The Fourier series of a periodic function f(t) is a
representation that resolves f(t) into a dc component and an
ac component comprising an infinite series of harmonic
sinusoids.
Given a periodic function f(t)=f(t+nT) where n is an integer
and T is the period of the function.
where w
0
=2/T is called the fundamental frequency in
Trigonometric Fourier Series

ac
n
n n
dc
t n b t n a a t f

=
+ + =
1
0 0 0
) sin cos ( ) ( e e
4
and Fourier coefficients, a
n
and b
n
, are:

Trigonometric Fourier Series
}
=
T
o n
dt t n t f
T
a
0
) cos( ) (
2
e
) ( tan ,
1
n
2 2
n
n
n n n
a
b
b a A

= + = |
}
=
T
o n
dt t n t f
T
b
0
) sin( ) (
2
e
in alternative form of f(t)

where

ac
n
n n
dc
t n A a t f

=
+ + =
1
0 0
) cos( ( ) ( | e
}
=
T
dt t f
T
a
0
0
) (
1
5
Conditions (Dirichlet conditions) on f(t) to yield
a convergent Fourier series:
1. f(t) is single-valued everywhere.
2. f(t) has a finite number of finite discontinuities in
any one period.
3. f(t) has a finite number of maxima and minima in
any one period.
4. The integral
Trigonometric Fourier Series
. any for ) (
0
0
0
t dt t f
T t
t
<
}
+
6
Example
Determine the Fourier series of the waveform
shown below. Obtain the amplitude and phase
spectra
Trigonometric Fourier Series
7
Solution
:
Trigonometric Fourier Series
) 2 ( ) ( and
2 1 , 0
1 0 , 1
) ( + =

< <
< <
= t f t f
t
t
t f

=
=
= =
= =
}
}
even n , 0
odd n , / 2
) sin( ) (
2

and 0 ) cos( ) (
2
0
0
0
0
t
e
e
n
dt t n t f
T
b
dt t n t f
T
a
T
n
T
n

=
= + =
1
1 2 ), sin(
1 2
2
1
) (
k
k n t n
n
t f t
t

=
=
=

=
=
=
even n , 0
odd n , 90
even n , 0
odd n , / 2

n
n
n
A
|
t
Truncating the series at N=11
a) Amplitude and
b) Phase spectrum
8
Three types of symmetry
1. Even Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot
is symmetrical about the vertical axis.

In this case,
Symmetry Considerations
) ( ) ( t f t f =
0
) cos( ) (
4
) (
2
2 /
0
0
2 /
0
0
=
=
=
}
}
n
T
n
T
b
dt t n t f
T
a
dt t f
T
a
e
Typical examples of even periodic function
9
2. Odd Symmetry : a function f(t) if its plot
is anti-symmetrical about the vertical axis.

In this case,
Symmetry Considerations
) ( ) ( t f t f =
}
=
=
2 /
0
0
0
) sin( ) (
4
0
T
n
dt t n t f
T
b
a
e
Typical examples of odd periodic function
10
3. Half-wave Symmetry : a function f(t) if

Symmetry Considerations
) ( )
2
( t f
T
t f =

=
=
}
}
even n for ,
odd n for ,
even n for ,
odd n for ,
0
) sin( ) (
4
0
) cos( ) (
4
0
2 /
0
0
2 /
0
0
0
T
n
T
n
dt t n t f
T
b
dt t n t f
T
a
a
e
e
Typical examples of half-wave odd periodic functions
11
Example
Find the Fourier series expansion of f(t) given
below.

Symmetry Considerations

=
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
sin
2
cos 1
1 2
) (
n
t
n n
n
t f
t t
t
Ans:
12
Example
Determine the Fourier series for the half-
wave cosine function as shown below.

Symmetry Considerations

=
= =
1
2 2
1 2 , cos
1 4
2
1
) (
k
k n nt
n
t f
t
Ans:
13
Circuit Applications
Steps for Applying Fourier Series
1. Express the excitation as a Fourier series.
Example, for periodic voltage source:

2. Transform the circuit from the time domain to
the frequency domain.
3. Find the response of the dc and ac
components in the Fourier series.
4. Add the individual dc and ac response using
the superposition principle.

ac
1 n
n 0 n
dc
0
) t n cos( V ( V ) t ( v

=
+ + = u e
14
Example
Find the response v
0
(t) of the circuit below
when the voltage source v
s
(t) is given by

Circuit Applications
( ) 1 2 , sin
1 2
2
1
) (
1
= + =

=
k n t n
n
t v
n
s
te
t
15
Solution
Phasor of the circuit
For dc component, (e
n
=0 or n=0), V
s
=
=> V
o
= 0
For n
th
harmonic,

In time domain,
Circuit Applications
s 0
V
2 5
2
V
t
t
n j
n j
+
=
)
5
2
tan ( c
4 25
4
) (
1
1
2 2
0

+
=
k
n
t n os
n
t v
t
t
t
s
2 2
1
0
V
4 25
5 / 2 tan 4
V , 90
2
V
t
t
t
n
n
n
S
+
Z
= Z =

Amplitude spectrum of
the output voltage
16
Given:

Useful Formula