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PIPING MATERIAL

MODULAR FABRICATION YARD


PIPING MODULE – PART II
INTRODUCTION
Piping Materials can be classified as

 Metals (ferrous) : CS, SS, Alloy Steel


 Metals (non-ferrous) : Cupro Nickel, Al
 Non-metals : PVC, cement, glass
■ Materials are selected based on their mechanical
and metallurgical properties.
■ Mechanical properties: strength, ductility,
hardness, brittleness, toughness
■ Metallurgical properties: Chemical composition,
weldability
CARBON STEEL

Low Carbon Steel : C < 0.15%


Condenser Tubes : SA 179
Weldability : Excellent

Mild Steel : 0.15% < C < 0.30%


Pipes : SA 106 GR B
Weldability: Good
CARBON STEEL
Medium Carbon Steel : 0.3% < C < 0.5%
Machinery Parts
Weldability: Fair
High Carbon Steel : 0.5% < C < 1%
Dies & punch, Tools
Weldability: Poor
 Steel : Carbon < 2%
 Cast Iron : Carbon > 2%
Weldability
■ As Carbon % increases , weldability decreases
■ Effect of carbon & other elements on the weldability of
carbon steels can be estimated by equating them to an
equivalent amount of carbon.

■ Carbon Equivalent:
Ceq = C + Mn/6 + Cr + Mo+ V + Cu + Ni
5 15
■ Killed Steel
During Steel making process oxygen present is removed
by adding Silica (De oxidizing agent).
ALLOY STEEL
 Addition of elements such as Cromium, Nickel,
Molybdenum, Manganese, Silicon along with heat
treatment improves the properties of steels such
as mechanical strength, corrosion resistance,
toughness

 Steel is a ferrous alloy having main constituent


Iron and other alloying elements / Impurities like
Carbon, Manganese, Phosphorus, Sulfur, Silicon,
Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum
ALLOY STEEL
Solid solubility in ferrous alloys :
Interstitial solid solution :
Carbon with Iron forms interstitial solid solution
(Carbon steel)
Substitutional solid solution :
Cromium and Nickel with iron forms Substitutional
solid solution (Stainless steel)
Low alloy steels :
Alloying elements < 5%
High alloy steels :
Alloying elements > 5%.
STAINLESS STEEL
 Alloy of iron with Cromium content more than
11% and less than 30% and other alloying
elements Nickel, Molybdenum etc is called
stainless steel.
 Stainless steel has excellent resistant to
corrosion.
 Stainless steel becomes corrosion resistant
(passive) because of formation of un-reactive
film which adheres tightly to the surface of metal.
This can be chromium oxide (Cr2O3) film that
acts as a barrier protecting metal against
corrosion.
EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS
Chromium : Increases resistance to Oxidation.
Nickel : Increases resistance to mineral acid,
produces tightly adhering high temperature
oxides.
Molybdenum: Increases resistance to chloride.
Copper : Increases resistance to sulphuric acid.
Titanium : Stabilize carbides to prevent formation of
chromium carbide
Niobium : Stabilize carbides to prevent formation of
chromium carbide
THE EFFECT OF ALLOYING ELEMENTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL

MACHINABILITY
RESISTANCE TO

FORGEABILITY
TEMPERATURE

COOLING RATE
IMPACT VALUE
ELONGATION
YIELD POINT

FORMATION
ELASTICITY
STRENGTH
ALLOYING

HARDNESS

STABLITY
ELEMENT

CARBIDE

SCALING
WEAR
HIGH
Silicon ↑ ↑ ↑↑ ↓ ↓ ↑↑↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ ↓↓↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Manganese in
perlit.steels ↑ ↑ ↑ • • ↑ • ↓ • ↓↓ ↑ ↓ •
Manganese in
austenit.steels. ↓↓↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↑↑ – – – ↓↓ – – ↓↓↓ ↓↓↓ ↓↓
Chromium ↑↑ ↑↑ ↑↑ ↓ ↓ ↑ ↑ ↓↓↓ ↑↑ ↑ ↓ – ↓↓↓
Nickel in
perlit.steels ↑ ↑ ↑ • • – ↑ ↓↓ – ↓↓ ↓ ↓ ↓
Nickel in
austennit.steels ↓↓ ↑ ↓ ↑↑↑ ↑↑↑ – ↑↑↑ ↓↓ – – ↓↓↓ ↓↓↓ ↓↓
Aluminum – – – – ↓ – – – – – ↓↓ – ↓↓
Tungsten ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ • – ↑↑↑ ↓↓ ↑↑ ↑↑↑ ↓↓ ↓↓ ↓↓
Vanadium ↑ ↑ ↑ • ↑ ↑ ↑↑ ↓↓ ↑↑↑↑ ↑↑ ↑ – ↓
Cobalt ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓ – ↑↑ ↑↑ – ↑↑↑ ↓ • ↓
Molybdenum ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↑ – ↑↑ ↓↓ ↑↑↑ ↑↑ ↓ ↓ ↑↑
Copper ↑ ↑ ↑↑ • • – ↑ – – – ↓↓↓ • •
Sulphur – – – ↓ ↓ – – – – – ↓↓↓ ↑↑↑ –
Phosphorous ↑ ↑ ↑ ↓ ↓↓↓ – – – – – ↓ ↑↑ –

↑=Increase ↓=Decrease • = constant - = not characteristic or unknown Several arrows =more intensive effect
STAINLESS STEEL

Classification based on

1. Alloying Constituents

2. Metallurgical Microstructure

3. Degree of sensitization
STAINLESS STEEL
Alloying constituents

200 Series : Cr. Ni - Mn group


( Mn replaces a portion of Ni)

300 Series : Cr - Ni group

400 Series : Straight Chromium Group


( Cr < 30%)
STAINLESS STEEL
Metallurgical microstructure.
Austenitic SS:
Alloy of Cr, Ni, Fe
Non Magnetic
High Corrosion resistance at temp up to 1500F
Hardenable by cold working
Crystallographic form-Face centered Cubic lattice
(fine grain structure)
Possess high impact strength at low temp
Ex: Type 304, 304L,316,316L
STAINLESS STEEL
Ferritic SS:
 Alloy of Cr, Fe
 Magnetic
 Non Hardenable by heat treatment
 Crystallographic form- Body centered cubic lattice
(coarse grain structure)
 For marine application. (10.5% Cr alloy with no nickel)
 Contains high carbon, therefore brittle & relatively poor
corrosion resistance
 Has resistance to chlorides stress corrosion cracking
 Ex: Type 409, 430, 439
STAINLESS STEEL

Martensitic SS.
 High hardness (carbon added to the alloy)

 Corrosion resistant

 Heat treatable to high hardness level

 Crystallographic form-distorted lattice

 Type 410,420.
STAINLESS STEEL
Precipitation Hardened SS
 Magnetic

 Heat treatable to high strength.

 Weldable and corrosion resistant similar to type


304
 Ex:-17-7PH, 17-4PH
STAINLESS STEEL
Duplex SS
 Contain both Austenite & Ferrite in microstructure. Ni (4 to
7%).
 When ferrite- Resistant to chloride stress corrosion cracking.
 When Austenite-Sensation to chloride stress corrosion
cracking.
 High strength, Good corrosion resistance
 Ex: Alloy 2205, Alloy 255
STAINLESS STEEL
3. Degree of sensitization of grain boundaries

GROUP 1

SS grade 304,316,309,310.


They are susceptible to sensitization.
(During welding, flame cutting)
STAINLESS STEEL
GROUP 2

 Stabilized stainless steel type 321 &347


 Grain boundaries sensitization eliminated by alloying
elements like Titanium or Columbium. (Because
Titanium or Columbium forms carbides first).
 Columbium (Type 347) is stronger stabilizing agent than
Ti (Type 321), Hence Type 347 is superior to 321
STAINLESS STEEL
GROUP 3

 Extra low carbon stainless steel Type 304L, 316L


 Can be stress relieved, welded & cooled slowly without
significantly increasing their susceptibility to IGC.
PROPERTIES OF STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS

MODULUS
UTS YS Elongation
ALLOYS UNS NO OF HARDNESS
(PSI) ( PSI) (%) min
ELASTICITY
1) Austenitic SS
Type 304 S 30,400 75,000 30,000 30 29,000,000 80 RB
Type 304L S 30,403 70,000 25,000 35 29,000,000 75 RB
Type 316 S 31,600 75,000 30,000 30 28,000,000 80 RB
Type 316 L S 31,603 70,000 25,000 35 28,000,000 75 RB

2) Ferritic SS
Type 430 S 43,000 60,000 30,000 20 29,000,000 85 RB
Type 439 S 43,035 60,000 30,000 20 29,000,000 90 RB
Type 409 S 40,900 55,000 30,000 20 29,000,000 85 RB

3) Duplex SS
Alloy 2205 S 31,805 90,000 65,000 25 29,000,000 30 RC
70 Mo Plus S 32,950 90,000 70,000 20 29,000,000 30 RC
Alloy 255 S 32,550 1,10,000 80,000 15 30,500,000 32 RC

4) Martensitic SS
Type 410 S 41,000 1,90,000 1,50,000 15 29,000,000 41 RC
Type 420 S 42,000 2,40,000 2,00,000 5 29,000,000 55 RC
Type 440L S 44,050 2,80,000 2,70,000 2 29,000,000 60 RC

5) Precipitatim SS
17.7 PH S 17,700 2,10,000 1,90,000 5 32,500,000 48 RC
17.4 PH S 17,400 1,90,000 1,70,000 8 28,000,000 45 RC
Custom 455 S 45,500 2,30,000 2,20,000 10 29,000,000 48 RC
ASTM / ASME Nomenclature
■ Materials are listed based on their known chemical
composition, manufacturing processes, mechanical
strength etc, in different codes i.e,ASTM, ASME, DIN,
MSS etc, and common UNS number
■ ASTM Standard gives various details of materials like
manufacturing process, Grades, Chemical Composition,
and Mechanical Properties.
■ ASME Code accepts the ASTM materials with some
additional specified properties.
ASTM / ASME Nomenclature
SA 312 TP 304
S : ASME approved Material
A : Ferrous
312 : Manufacturing Process No.
TP : Tubular Product
304 : Grade
SA 234 GR WPB
S : ASME approved Material
A : Ferrous
234 : Manufacturing Process No.
GR : Grade.
WP : Wrought Product
B : Grade
ASTM / ASME Nomenclature
■ SA 350 LF 2 : Low Temperature Forging Grade 2

■ SA 216 WCB : Weldable Casting Grade B

■ SA 335 P 11 : Pipe Grade 11

■ SA 182 Gr F11 : Forging Grade 11

■ SA 351 Gr CF 8 : Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.08%

■ SA 351 Gr CF 3 : Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.03%

■ SA 351 Gr CF 8M : Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.08%, Mo

■ SA 351 Gr CF 3M : Centrifugal Cast, Carbon % - 0.03%, Mo


CORROSION
■ Corrosion is the tendency of any metal to return to its most
stable thermodynamic state i.e. state with most negative
free energy formation. . More simply stated, it is a chemical
reaction of metal with environment to form an oxide,
carbonate, sulphate or other stable compound.

■ Corrosion is broadly classified into two categories:


 Low temperature corrosion (corrosion at room
temperature and below)
 High temperature corrosion (corrosion at elevated
temperature including molten metal.)
CORROSION
Classification :
 General or uniform corrosion.
 Localized Corrosion
Inter granular corrosion (IGC)
Pitting corrosion
crevice corrosion
Stress corrosion cracking
Micro biological influenced corrosion.
INTER GRANULAR CORROSION
 During Welding:- ( at Temp. 800-1600 F ), Carbon
molecules diffuse to grain boundary & precipitate
out of solid solution as chromium carbide at the
grain boundaries. This result in the depletion of
chromium content in the thin envelope
surrounding each grain, Hence Stainless Steel
becomes susceptible to Inter Granular Corrosion
& is said to be sensitized.
 Corrosion property of sensitized steel can be
restored by desensitization i.e. heat above 1600
F, & rapid cooling.
 Testing Standard: IGC Practice A/B/C/D/E
SULPHIDE STRESS CORROSION CRACKING
 A cracking process that requires simultaneous action of
corrodant and sustained tensile stress.
 NACE MR-0175 standard presents metallic material
requirements for resistance to sulfide stress cracking(SSC)
for petroleum production,drilling,gathering,flowline
equipment, and field processing facilities to be used in
hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-bearing hydrocarbon services.
 Testing Standard: NACE TM- 01/77
 Reporting of test result: Curve shall be reported as per
NACE-TM-01-77 for various stress level between 72%and
90% of SMYS.
 Acceptance Criteria: At 72 % SMYS, time of failure shall not
be less than 720 hrs.
HYDROGEN INDUCED CRACKING
 Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) is also known as cold
cracking, delayed cracking or under bead cracking
 HIC occurs in piping or vessel as a result of hydrogen pick
up in service
 It occurs in steels during steel manufacturing, during
fabrication, and in service. It occurs as a result of welding,
the cracks are sited either in HAZ of parent material or in
the weld metal it self.
 Testing Standard: NACE TM- 02/84
NACE
NACE: National Association of Corrosion Engineers
■ NACE Standard gives chemical composition, Manufacture, Fabrication
& testing Requirements for Steels intended to be used for Sour
Service environment

Sour service Requirements


■ Steel shall be manufactured by Basic Oxygen Process or Electric arc
furnace
■ Steel to be Killed & fine grained

■ Materials shall be in Normalized Condition

■ Nickel % limited to < 1%

■ Carbon content< 0 .23%

■ Carbon Equivalent < 0.43%

■ Hardness < 22 HRC

■ Sulpher content< 0.002%


Material Selection Criteria
Service media
 Corrosive-sea water, H2S, Ammonia
 Non Corrosive
Temperature
 Cryogenic
 Low temperature
 Medium temperature
 High temperature
Pressure
 Low pressure
 High pressure
Standard
 Material specification
 Additional requirements
Economy
 Cost
 Availability
 Weldability
 Manufacturability
Material Selection for Temperature

SERVICE PRESSURE
PLATE PIPE FORGING
TEMPERATURE (°F) BOLTING

C SA 240 types SA 312 types SA 182 grades


R 304, 304L, 347 304,304L, 347 F304, F304L, Bolts: SA 320 gr. B8
Y F347 strain. Hardened
O (-425) – (-321) Nuts: SA 194 gr.8
(S5 SA 20)
G
E
N
I
C SA 240 types 304, SA 312 types SA 182 grades
340L, 316, 316L 304, 304L, 316, F304, F304L,
T SA 353 316L F316
E
M (-320) – (-151)
P
Material Selection for Temperature (Continued…)
SERVICE PLATE PRESSURE
PIPE FORGING
TEMPERATURE (°F) BOLTING

(-150) – (-76) SA 203 GR.D OR E SA 333 GR.3 SA 350 GR.


LF3

L
(-75) – (-51) SA 203 GR.A OR B SA 333 GR.3 SA 350 GR. BOLTS: SA 320
O
LF3 GR.L7
W
NUTS: SA 194
GR.4
T (-50) – (-21) SA 516 ALL SA 333 GR.1
E GRADES IMPACT
M TESTED
P
E
R
(-20) – (+4) SA 516 ALL
A
GRADES OVER 1 IN.
T
THICK IMPACT
U SA 350 GR.
TESTED
R LF1 OR LF2 BOLTS: SA 193
E SA 53
GR.B7
(SEAMLESS) OR
NUTS: SA 194
(+5) – (+32) SA 516 ALL SA 106
GR.2H
GRADES OVER 1 IN.
THICK IMPACT
TESTED
Material Selection for Temperature (Continued…)
SERVICE PRESSURE
PLATE PIPE FORGING
TEMPERATURE (°F) BOLTING

SA 285 GR.C, ¾ IN.


THK. MAX.
SA 515 GR.55, 60,
65, 1.5IN. THK. MAX.
I SA 516 ALL
N (+33) – (+60) GRADES, ALL THK.
T
E
R
M
E SA 181 GR.I
D SA 53 (SEAM Bolts: SA 193 gr.
OR II
I SA 285 GR.C, ¾ IN. LESS) OR SA B7
SA 105 GR.I
A THK. MAX. 106 Nuts: SA 194 gr.
OR 11
T SA 515 GR.55, 60, 2H
E 65, 1.5IN. THK. MAX.
SA 516 ALL
T GRADES, ALL THK.
E (+61) – (+775) SA 204 GR.B ALL
M
P
Material Selection for Temperature (Continued…)
SERVICE PLATE PRESSURE
PIPE FORGING
TEMPERATURE (°F) BOLTING

(+776) – (+875) SA 204 GR.B OR C SA 335 GR.P1 SA 182 GR.F1


E
L BOLTS: SA 193
E GR.L7
V (+876) – (+1000) SA 387 GR.11 CL1 SA 335 P11 SA 182 GR. NUTS: SA 194
A SA 387 GR.12 CL.1 SA 335 P12 F11 GR.2H
T SA 182 GR.
E F12
D

(+1000)– (+1100) SA 387 GR.22 CL1 SA 335 P22 SA 193 GR.B5


T SA 194 GR.3
E SA 182 GR.22
M
P
E
(+1100)– (+1500) SA 240 TYPES 304,
R SA 182
316, 321, 347, SA 312 TYPES
A GRADES SA 193 GR.B8
347PREFERED 304H, 316H, 312,
T 304H, 316H, SA 194 GR.8
U 347H
321H, 347H
R
E

ABOVE +1500 TYPE 310


STAINLESS
INCOLOY
GROUPING OF MATERIALS
Base Metal Type
P1 : Carbon Steel
P3, P4,P5 : Alloy Steel
P6, P7 : Ferritic & Martensitic Steel
P8 : Austenitic Stainless Steel
P9 : Nickel Steel
P10, P11 : Quenched & Tempered Steel
MATERIAL AND ITS SPECIFICATIONS

DESCRIPTION CS AS SS DSS

PIPE A 106 GR B A 335 GR P11 A 312 TP 316 A 790 UNS S31803

BW FITTINGS A 234 GR WPB A 234 GR WP 11 A 403 WP 316 A 815 UNS S 31803

FORGED A 105 A 182 GR F11 A 182 GR F 316 A 182 GR F 51


FLANGES/ UNS S 31803
FITTINGS
FASTNERS A 193 GR B7/ A 193 GR B16/ A 193 GR B7M/ A 453 GR 660 CL A
A 194 GR 2H A 194 GR 2H A 194 GR 2HM

PLATES A 516 GR 70 A 387 GR 11 A 240 GR 316 A 240 UNS S 31803