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Introduction to Signals and Systems: Deterministic and Random Signals and their Principles

Signal Any physical quantity that varies with time or some variables. A signal maybe considered to be a function of time that represents physical variable of interest associated with a system.

The term "signal" includes, among others, audio, video, speech, image, communication, geophysical, sonar, radar, medical and musical signals

EXAMPLE OF SIGNALS
Speech Signal

Electrocardiogram ( ECG )
A signal that provides a doctor with information about the condition of the patients heart.

Electroencephalogram ( EEG) A signal that provides information about the activity of the brain

System Is a combination and interconnection of several components to perform desired task. An integrated whole, even though composed of diverse, interacting structure of subjunctions -It is a physical device used to perform operations on an input signal. It also includes the software realization of operations and processing techniques

SIGNAL PROCESSING Refers to manipulation, transformations and operations performed on input signal to obtain output signal that has desired characteristics

Analog

Digital

Advantages of Digital over Analog Signal Processing

Flexibility

Accuracy
Easily Stored Sophisticated Signal Processing algorithm Cheaper (in some cases)

Classification of Signals
1. Multichannel and Multidimensional Signals 2. Continuous- Time vs. Discrete- Time Signals 3. Continuous Valued vs. Discrete-Valued Signals 4. Deterministic vs. Random Signals

Deterministic vs. Random Signals


Deterministic Signals
A special class of stationary signals, and they have a relatively constant frequency and level content over a long time period. Deterministic signals are generated by rotating machines, musical instruments, and electronic function generators. They are further divisible into periodic and quasi-periodic signals. Periodic signals have waveforms whose pattern repeats at equal increments of time, whereas quasi-periodic signals have waveforms whose repetition rate varies over time, but still appears to the eye to be periodic. Sometimes, rotating machines will produce quasi-periodic signals, especially belt-driven equipment.

Deterministic signals are probably the most important in vibration analysis and their spectra resemble the following:

Most quasi-periodic signals are actually a combination of several harmonic series.

Periodic signals always produce spectra with discrete frequency components that are a harmonic series. The term "harmonic" comes from music, where harmonics are multiples of the fundamental frequency.

Random Signal
Random signals are random variables which evolve, often with time (e.g. audio noise), but also with distance (e.g. intensity in an image of a random texture), or sometimes another parameter. They can be described as usual by their cdf and either their pmf (if the amplitude is discrete, as in a digitized signal) or their pdf (if the amplitude is continuous, as in most analogue signals). However a very important additional property is how rapidly a random signal fluctuates. Clearly a slowly varying signal such as the waves in an ocean is very different from a rapidly varying signal such as vibrations in a vehicle.

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