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Jean Watson’s Theory

Madeline N. Gerzon
Jean Watson
 Jean Watson developed her theory while
she was having a personal experience
(husband’s death) in her life

 She molded her professional and

personal life in order to develop her
 Graduated High School in West Virginia
 Graduated the Lewis Gale School of
Nursing in 1961
 Baccalaureate degree in Nursing from
University of Colorado, Boulder Campus in
 Master’s Degree in Psychiatric-Mental
Health Nursing from University of
Colorado, Health Sciences Campus in

 Doctorate in Educational Psychology and

Counseling from the University of
Colorado, Graduate School in 1973
 Distinguished Professor of Nursing and
holds an endowed Chair in Caring Science
at the University of Colorado Health
Sciences Center

 Founder of the original Center for Human

Caring in Colorado and is a Fellow of the
American Academy of Nursing
 Served as Dean of Nursing at the
University Health Sciences Center and is
a Past President of the National League
for Nursing

 Involved in early planning of the PhD

program in Colorado
 Published
Published Writer

Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of
Caring (1979, 1985)
 Nursing: Human Science and Human

Care – A Nursing Theory (1985, 1988,


Postmodern Nursing and Beyond (1999)
 Recipient of several awards and honors
including: an international Kellogg Fellowship in
Australia, a Fulbright Research Award in
Sweden and six Honorary Doctoral Degrees,
including 3 International Honorary Doctorates
(Sweden, United Kingdom, and Quebec)
 She was the 1993 recipient of the National
League for Nursing Martha E. Rogers Award,
which recognizes a nurse scholar who has made
significant contributions to nursing knowledge
that advances the science of caring in nursing
and health sciences.
 New York University recognized her as a
Distinguished Nurse Scholar
 In 1999, the Fetzer Institute honored her
with the national Norman Cousins Award
in recognition of her commitment to
developing; maintaining and exemplifying
relationship-centered care practices.
Transpersonal Caring

 Focuses on individuals and meaning for

their quality of life
 Caring involves sensitivity, respect, and high
moral and ethical commitment
 Places care before cure
Transpersonal Caring
 Caring becomes the ethical standard
by which we measure nursing

Caring preserves human dignity
 Caring is a choice

 Emphasis on nurse-patient relationship

Jean Watson

 She believed health was related to having

“harmony, resulting from unity of body,
mind, and soul.”
Jean Watson
and Science of
Philosophy and
Science of Caring
 Caring can be demonstrated and

 Caring consists of carative factors

Philosophy and
Science of Caring
 Caring promotes growth

 A caring environment accepts a

person as he is and looks to what
the person may become
Philosophy and
Science of Caring
 A caring environment offers
development of potential

 Caring promotes health better than


 Caring is central to nursing

The Caritas Process
 Caritas comes from the Latin word
meaning to cherish, to appreciate, to give
special attention, if not loving, attention to;
it connotes something that is very fine,
that indeed is precious
The Caritas Process

 Both postmodern and traditional

 Invites nurse to explore the intersection

between personal and professional
Watson’s 10 Carative Factors

1. Formation of humanistic-altruistic
value system

3. Instillation of faith-hope

5. Cultivation of sensitivity to one’s

self and others
Watson’s 10 Carative Factors

1. Development helping-trust

3. Promotion and acceptance of

expression of positive and
negative feelings
Watson’s 10 Carative Factors

2. Systematic use of the scientific

problem-solving method for decision

4. Promotion of interpersonal teaching-

Watson’s 10 Carative Factors

1. Provision for a supportive, protective,

and corrective mental, physical,
sociocultural, and spiritual environment

3. Assistance with the gratification of

human needs
Watson’s 10 Carative Factors

1. Allowance for existential-

phenomenological forces
Watson’s Metaparadigm
 Person

Human being to be valued, cared for,
respected, nurtured, understood and
Watson’s Metaparadigm

 Environment

Watson’s Metaparadigm
 Health
 Complete physical, mental and
social well-being and functioning
Watson’s Metaparadigm

 Nursing

Concerned with promoting and
restoring health, preventing