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Unit 5: Age of Jackson, 1828 - 1848

Democracy and the Common Man

Alexis de Tocqueville (French writer and visitor to the US) and others from Europe were amazed by the informal manners, democratic attitudes, and equality they witnessed in America

Godeys Ladys Book Vogue of its time for all ladies to copy latest styles More equality, exceptWhos left out? Self-made man was the hero of the age

Expansion of Suffrage
1824 1840 no longer just the wealthy elite involved in politics more lower and middle class voters than ever before Universal male suffrage Party nominating conventions Popular election of the president electors chosen by voters rather than legislature

Rise of ThirdParties More elected offices Popular campaigning Two-Party System national scale

Rotation of office
Spoils

system rewarding party loyalty with government jobs Rotation in office pros and cons? Both of the above affirmed the democratic ideal that one man was as good as another

Jackson elected after the Corrupt Bargain and election of John Quincy Adams in 1824 Campaigns both included MUDSLINGING and personal attacks on candidates and their wives

Revolution of 1828

Rachel and Andrew were living as husband and wife for two years before they found out that her first husband had actually never completed the divorce. Meanwhile, Jackson supporters were by no means innocent. Adams was accused of installing gambling tables in the White House at the public expense, of padding his expense account, and even of pimping women for the Tsar of Russia

THREE

TIMES the number of voters than last election

Second Party System

1. Democratic Party favored local rule, limited government, free trade, equal opportunities (White males) -opposed monopolies, national bank, high tariffs, and high land prices Supported by southerners, westerners, small farmers, urban workers Jacksons Party

2. Whig Party (Anti-Jackson) favored Clays American System, national bank, federal funding for internal improvements, protective tariff Opposed immorality, crime, blamed immigrants Supported by New Englanders, mid-Atlantic, upper Middle-West, Protestants, middle class urban professionals

Activity 1: Use the previous notes to answer the question below in paragraph form. You will then share your paragraph with a neighbor.

Analyze the extent to which electoral politics influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840

Presidency of Andrew Jackson


Common man? extraordinary ordinary man self-made man Kitchen Cabinet Peggy Eaton Affair More vetoes than all previous presidents Internal improvements and states rights: The Maysville Road veto Jackson vetoed rival Clays plan because it was wholly within one state (Kentucky)

Indian Removal Act (1830)


Jackson convinced best solution for land-hungry citizens Native Americans would move west of the Mississippi with help of Bureau of Indian Affairs to Oklahoma territory

Worcester v. Georgia (1832) laws of Georgia had no force within the boundaries of Cherokee territories Jackson sided with the states John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it. 1838 Trail of Tears 15,000 Cherokees forced to leave, 4,000 died on journey Other Native groups included: Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole

Webster-Hayne Debates (1830) 1. Tariff issue Calhouns South Carolina did not want to collect, Jackson and Congress passed Force Bill take military action if necessary compromise lower tariff and nullification postponed 2. The Union: Calhoun and Jackson Jackson favored federal authority regarding nullification, but also supported Southern slavery by stopping anti-slavery literature distributions in US mail

The Nullification Crisis right of states to declare a federal law null and void

The Bank War: Jackson and Biddle


Biddle managed bank effectively, but some felt he catered to the wealthy Jackson vetoed bank believed it was unconstitutional, hydra of corruption, expense of common people Won re-election over Clay partly due to issue, of electoral vote

Martin Van Buren


VP

to Jackson Panic of 1837 partly due to veto of BUS and pet banks Democrats and Van Buren blamed

Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign of 1840


Tippecanoe and Tyler Too Whigs candidate William Henry Harrison, popular war hero Campaigning log cabins rolling down streets, free drinks, buttons, name-calling Martin Van Ruin 78% of eligible voters turned out Fate of Harrison?

Creating and American Culture


A. Cultural Nationalism new enthusiasm for reform B. Education reform/ professionalism

1.

Horace Mann led tax-supported public school movement, compulsory attendance, longer school year, teacher training 2. Moral education McGuffey readers, hard work, punctual, sober Higher education result of 2nd Great Awakening, Mt. Holyoke and Oberlin admitted women

1. Second Great Awakening 1820s 40s 2. Burned Over District and Western New York/ Charles G. Finney 3. Baptists and Methodists in South Peter Cartwright led outdoor revivals, camp meetings

Religion; revivalism

Utopian experiments
1. Mormons founded by Joseph Smith Book of Mormon connection between lost tribes of Israel and Native Americans Smith gained followers and moved west, murdered in Illinois Brigham Young led Mormons to Salt Lake City, Utah establish prosperous, cooperative religious community Polygamy

Oneida Community founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848


cooperative living Committed to perfect social and economic equality, free-love Shared property and marriage partners Planned reproduction, communal child rearing, economic success

Shakers
Founded by Mother Ann Lee believed to be female embodiment of Christ Communal living Separation of the Sexes Opportunities for women

Activity 2 Answer the following in paragraph form.

Analyze the extent to which the Second Great Awakening influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840.

Transcendentalists
Challenged materialism of American society Individualism, emotion, and nature Ralph Waldo Emerson self reliance, independent thinking Henry David Thoreau Essay on Civil Disobedience and Walden Brook Farm communal, combine manual labor and intellectuals

National literature, art, and architecture


Painting - Hudson River School expressed romantic ages fascination with the natural world Architecture Greek styles, democratic spirit Literature American writers and American themes Coopers Leatherstocking Tales and Last of the Mohicans, Hawthornes Scarlet Letter, and Melvilles Moby Dick

Reform Crusades - Feminism; roles of women in the 19th century

Cult of Domesticity Stemmed from womens involvement in anti-slavery movement Grimke Sisters Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton Seneca Falls Convention (1848) Declaration of Sentiments modeled after?

Abolitionism

American Colonization Society (1817) Back to Africa Liberia American Anti-Slavery Society (1831) William Lloyd Garrison immediate emancipation, burned Constitution Black Abolitionists Frederick Douglass and his North Star, Sojourner Truth Violent Abolitionists David Walker, Nat Turner

Temperance
Used moral arguments to protest excessive drinking and alcohol One of first reform movements women got involved in American Temperance Society by 1840s million members Womens Christian Temperance Union Supported by factory owners Opposed by German and Irish immigrants

Criminals and insane

Mental Hospitals and Dorothea Dix Schools for Blind and Deaf Prisons solitary confinement for reflection of sins, structure and discipline for moral reform, work programs

Activity 3 Work with a partner on the following question.

The Jacksonian Period (1824 1848) has been celebrated as the era of the common man. To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider the reform movements of the Jackson Age in your response.

Essay Questions

1. Analyze the extent to which TWO of the following influenced the development of democracy between 1820 and 1840

Jacksonian economic policy Changes in electoral politics Second Great Awakening Westward Movement

Essay Question
The Jacksonian Period (1824 1848) has been celebrated as the era of the common man. To what extent did the period live up to its characterization? Consider TWO of the following in your response. Economic Development Politics Reform Movements

Unit 5 Quiz
1. What system was used during the Jackson age to reward loyal party members with jobs? 2. Who headed the National Bank during the Jackson Age? 3. Who led the movement for public education reform? 4. Who helped establish safe institutions for the mentally insane? 5. What religion did Joseph Smith begin after an angel visited him?