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Power Cycles

The ideal Rankine Cycle is composed of the following processes: 1 - 2: Isentropic expansion in the engine; S=C 2 3: Constant pressure rejection of heat in the condenser; P=C 3 B: Adiabatic pumping; S=C B 1: Constant pressure addition of heat in the steam generator, P=C

Note: a). In the ideal cycle, the state of steam leaving the steam generator and entering the engine are the same as well as the state of feedwater leaving the pump and entering the steam generator. This means that there is no pressure drop and no heat leakage in the steam line and feedwater line. b). The quantity of the working substance within the system is constant. This implies that there are no leakages in the system.

Heat

added, QA Energy Balance:


Ein = Eout Q A + h B = h1 QA = h 1 - hB

Heat

Rejected, QR Energy Balance:


Ein = Eout h2 = h3 + QR QR = h 2 h3

Engine

Work, W Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout h1 = h 2 + W W = h 1 h2 Considering the change in Kinetic Energy, h 1 + K1 = h 2 + K2 + W W = h 1 h 2 + K 1 K2

Pump

Work, WP Exact Pump Work:


Ein = Eout h3 + WP = hB W P = hB h3

Approximate Pump Work The state of feedwater leaving the pump is that of a compressed liquid. Very often, compressed liquid tables are not available, hence, the properties of a compressed liquid are not easily obtainable. Therefore, the exact pump work is difficult to determine. The following assumptions are made in the determination of the approximate pump work. Water is practically an incompressible liquid. Therefore, v3 = vB The change in internal energy is negligible. uB = u3

Approximate Pump Work Energy Balance: Ein = Eout u3 + Wf3 + WP + = uB + WfB WP = WfB Wf3 WP = PB vB P3v3 WP = v3 (PB - P3) Net Cycle Work, WNET
WNET = Gross Work Pump Work WNET = W WP WNET = h1 h2 - WP

Another

method of determining the net cycle work is obtaining it from the T-s Diagram. WNET = area 123B1 = area (123B1) - area (23bc2) = QA - Q R = (h1 - hB ) (h2 h3 ) = h2 h1 (hB h3 ) = h 1 h 2 WP Thermal Efficiency, eC

Steam

Rate, m

Steam rate is the mass of steam used to perform a unit work or the mass flow rate of steam consumed to produce a unit of power. For good design, a lower value of steam rate is desired. A lower value of steam rate means that a smaller quantity of steam is needed to develop the desired power output.

Let: P = power output, kW W = work done by a kg of steam, kJ/kg M = steam rate, kg/kWh By definition:

But:

Then;

For the Ideal Rankine Cycle:

The ideal Rankine Engine is either a steam turbine or a steam engine. The difference between an ideal Rankine Engine and an ideal Rankine Cycle is that an ideal engine does not include pump work since it is concerned only with all the processes occurring inside the engine. On the other hand, the ideal cycle must include pump work because the pump is needed for the completion of the cycle. And for the engine to be ideal, the expansion process should be isentropic.

Work, W

W = h 1 h2 Thermal Efficiency, ee The definition of thermal efficiency does not directly applies to an engine because no heat is added to it. Instead, it is charged with the enthalpy of steam entering the engine and credited with the enthalpy of saturated liquid at the condensing temperature. When applied to an engine, the thermal efficiency, e=W/QA becomes e=W/EC where EC is energy chargeable against the engine.

EC = enthalpy of steam entering the engine enthalpy of saturated liquid at the condensing temperature

Steam

Rate, me

Heat

Rate, HR Heat rate is the energy chargeable per unit of work or the rate of energy chargeable per unit of power.

Heat

Rate, HR

Relation

between ee and HR

As can be seen from the resulting equation (previous slide), the thermal efficiency is inversely proportional to the heat rate. This means that the lower the heat rate, the higher the thermal efficiency and the higher the heat rate, the lower the thermal efficiency.

Any presence of the following conditions will transform the ideal cycle into an actual one. 1. Pressure drop in the steam generator. 2. Pressure drop in the steam line (1-1). 3. Pressure drop in the condenser. 4. Pressure drop in the feedwater line (B-B) 5. Heat losses in the steam line. 6. Heat losses in the turbine/engine. 7. Irreversible adiabatic expansion in the turbine. 8. Inefficient pump. 9. Subcooled condensate.

Heat Added, QA QA = h1 - hB

Heat Rejected, QR QR = h2 - h3

Engine Work, W Irreversible adiabatic expansion from 1 2 W = h1 - h2

Polytropic expansion from 1 2 Ein = Eout h1 = h2 + W + QLoss W = h1 h2 - QLoss

Pump

Work, WP

where: nm = pump mechanical efficiency


Actual

Cycle Thermal Efficiency, ec

If during the expansion process, the steam undergoes a process other than isentropic process, the engine is said to be an actual one. Engine Analysis Work, W W = h1 - h2 Energy Chargeable against the engine, EC EC = h1 - hf3 Thermal Efficiency, ee

1.
2.

3.

4. 5.

Turbo-generator is a generator driven by a turbine. Ideal work, W, is the work done by the steam during a reversible adiabatic expansion process in the turbine. Indicated or actual fluid work, W1 or W, is the work done by the steam during an irreversible adiabatic expansion or polytropic expansion process in the turbine. Brake work, WB, is the useful work, i.e., the available work at the engine shaft. Combined Work, WK, is the electrical energy available at the generator outlet.

Ideal Thermal Efficiency, e

Indicated Thermal Efficiency, ei Brake Thermal Efficiency, eb

Combined Thermal Efficiency, ek

Note: e> ei > eb > ek

Ideal Steam Rate, m

Indicated Steam Rate, m1

Brake Steam Rate, mb

Combined Steam Rate, mk

Indicated Engine Efficiency, ni

Brake Engine Efficiency, nb

Combined Engine Efficiency, nk

Turbine/Engine Mechanical Efficiency, nme

Generator Efficiency, ng

Ideal

Heat Rate, HR HR = (m) (EC)


Heat Rate, HRi HRi = (mi)(EC)

Indicated

Brake

Heat Rate, HRb HRb = (mb)(EC) Heat Rate, HRk HRk = (mk)(EC)

Combined

3 1, p. 71 Steam is generated at 4.10 MPa and 440C and condensation occurs at 0.105 MPa. (a) For a Rankine engine operating between these limits, compute the thermal efficiency and the heat rate. (b) Considering that a Rankine cycle occurs between the same limits, determine QA, QR, WNET, and eC. (c) What mass flow rate is required for a net output of 30, 000 kW?

@ P1 = 4.10 MPa
P1 = 4.10 MPa T1 = 440C h1 = 3305.7 kJ/kg s1 = 6.8911 kJ/kg-K

@ P2 = 0.105 MPa
hf2 = 423.24 kJ/kg hfg2 = 2254.4 kJ/kg sf2 = 1.3181 kJ/kg-K sfg2 = 6.0249 kJ/kg-K

h2 = hf2 - x2hfg2 = 423.24+(0.925)(2254.4) h2 = 2508.6 kJ/kg h3 = hf @ 0.105 MPa = 423.24 kJ/kg vf3 = vf @ 0.105 MPa = 0.0010443 m3/kg

WP = vf3(PB - P3) = (0.0010443)(4100-105)


WP = 4.17 kJ/kg hB = h3 + WP = 423.24 + 4.17 = 427.4 kJ/kg (a) Rankine Engine W = h1 h2 = 3305.7 2508.6 = 797.1 kJ/kg EC = h1 hf2 = 3305.7 423.24 = 2882.5 kJ/kg ee = W/EC ee = (797.1 / 2882.5) x100%= 27.65% m = 3600/W m = 3600/ 797.1 = 4.156 kg/kWh (b) Rankine Cycle QA = h1 hB = 3305.7 427.4 = 2878.3 kJ/kg QR = h2 h3 = 2508.6 423.24 = 2085.4 kJ/kg WNET = QA QR = 2878.3 2085.4 = 729.9 kJ/kg or WNET = W WP = 797.1 4.17 = 792.9 kJ/kg eC = WNET /QA = (792.9/2878.3)x100% = 27.55% (c) Steam flow rate

= (30,000 kW)/ WNET kJ/kg = 30,000 kJ/s / 792.9 kJ/kg = 37.84 kg/s

Moisture

is harmful to the blades of the turbine. It causes erosion and cavitations of the turbine blades. As have been observed in the previous cycle, the moisture content increases during the later stages of the expansion process. One solution to this problem is by reheating the steam after partial expansion in the turbine. Reheating minimizes the efficiency of the cycle. Steam is usually withdrawn and reheated by few degrees before the saturation point.

The ideal reheat cycle with one stage of reheating is composed of the following processes: 1-2: Partial isentropic expansion in the turbine, S=C 2-3: Constant pressure resuperheating in the reheater, P = C 3-4: Complete isentropic expansion in the turbine, S = C 4-5: Constant pressure rejection of heat in the condenser, P = C 5-B: Adiabatic pumping process, S = C B-1: Constant pressure addition of heat in the boiler, P = C

Heat

Added, QA Energy Balance:


Ein = Eout QB + hB = h1 QB = h1 - hB

Reheater Energy Balance:


Ein = Eout QRH + h2 = h3 QRH = h3 h2

Therefore:

QA = QB + QRH QA = h1 - hB + h3 h2 For a given number of stages of reheating,

Where: n = number of reheaters

Heat

Rejected, QR Energy Balance:


Ein = Eout h4 = h5 + QR QR = h 4 h5

Engine Work, W Energy Balance:


Ein = Eout h1 + h3 = h2 + h4 + W W = h 1 h2 + h 3 - h4

Another means of determining engine work is by getting the sum of the work done by the steam during the different stages of expansion. W = W1-2 + W3-4 W = h 1 h2 + h 3 - h4

Pump

Work, WP Approximate Pump Work WP vf5 (PB P5) Exact Pump Work:
Ein = Eout h 5 + WP = h B W P = hB h5

Net

Cycle Work, WNET WNET = Engine Work Pump Work WNET = h1 h2 + h3 - h4 WP


method: = QA - Q R = (h1 - hB + h3 h2) (h4 h5) = h1 h2 + h3 h4 (hB h5) = h 1 h 2 + h 3 h 4 WP

Another

WNET

Thermal

Efficiency, ec

But

WNET = h1 h2 + h3 - h4 WP QA = h1 - hB + h3 h2

hB = h5 + WP QA = h1 h2 + h3 h5 WP

Steam

Rate, mc mc = 3600/ WNET ,in kg/kWh

The

ideal reheat engine ignores the pressure drop in the reheater. The engine is an ideal one whether there is or there is no pressure drop in the reheater for as long as the expansion process is an isentropic one. Engine Analysis Work, W W = h 1 h2 + h 3 - h4 Steam Rate, me me = 3600/ W

Energy

Chargeable against the engine, EC General equation which is applicable to a reheat engine only. EC = enthalpy of steam entering the engine - enthalpy of saturated liquid at the condensing temperature + QRH For the given engine: EC = h1 - h5 + QRH = h1 - h5 + (h3 h2) = h1 - h2 + h3 h5

Any

presence of the following conditions will make the ideal reheat cycle an actual one. Pressure drop in the boiler/steam generator. PB P1; P1< PB Pressure drop in the steam line (1 1). P1 < P1; P1 P1 t1 < t1; t1 t1 Pressure drop in the reheater. P2 < P3; P2 P3 Pressure drop in the condenser. P4 P5; P5< P4

Irreversible adiabatic expansion process. s2 s1 and s4 s3


QLoss = 0, but

s2 > s1 and s4 > s3 Polytropic expansion process. QLoss = 0 and s1 s2 and s4 s3 Heat losses in the steam line (1 1) Inefficient pump. Pump efficiency < 100% Pressure drop in the feedwater line. PB < PB

Heat

Added, QA QA = QB + QRH QA = (h1 hB) + (h3 h2) Heat Rejected, QR QR = h4 - h5 Engine Work, W W = h1 h2 + h3 h4 If irreversible adiabatic expansion process or, W = h1 h2 + h3 h4 QLoss If polytropic expansion process Net Cycle Work, WNET WNET = W WP

Actual Pump Work, WP

Thermal efficiency, eC

If

the expansion process is no longer isentropic, the engine is said to be an actual one. Engine Analysis Work, W

W = h1 h2 + h3 h4 Energy Chargeable against the engine, EC EC = h1 hf5 + QRH = h1 - hf5 + (h3 h2)

Thermal

efficiency, ee

Steam

Rate, me

Heat

Rate, HR HR = (me)(EC)

3 5, p. 88 In a reheat cycle steam at 8.0 MPa and 485C enters the turbine and expands to 1.4 MPa. At this point, the steam is withdrawn and passed through a reheater. It re-enters the turbine at 1.3 MPa and 720C. Expansion now occurs to the condenser pressure of 0.006 MPa. For the cycle and 1 kg of steam, determine (a) QA , (b) WNET and (c) eC . For the engine, determine (d) W, (e) eC and (f) the steam flow for an engine output of 40,000 kW.

h1 = h @ 8.0 MPa and 485C = 3361 kJ/kg h2 = h @ 1.4 MPa and S2 = S1 = 2891 kJ/kg h3 = h @ 1.3 MPa and 720C = 3968 kJ/kg h4 = h @ 0.006 MPa and S4 = S3 = 2526 kJ/kg h5 = hf @ 0.006 MPa = 151.53 kJ/kg vf5 = vf @ 0.006 MPa = 1.0064x10-3 m3/kg WP = vf5 (PB P5) = (1.0064x10-3)(8000-6) = 8.05 kJ/kg hB5 = h5 + WP = 151.53 + 8.05 = 159.58 kJ/kg

(a) QA = h1 hB5 + h3 h2 = 3361 159.58 + 3968 2891 = 4278.4 kJ/kg (b) W = h1 h2 + h3 h4 = 3361 2891 + 3968 2526 = 1912 kJ/kg WNET = W WP = 1912 8.05 = 1904 kJ/kg (c) eC = WNET /QA = (1904/4278.4)x 100% = 44.5% (d) W = 1912 kJ/kg (e) EC = h1 h2 + h3 hf5 = 3361 -2891 + 3968 -151.83 = 4286.5 kJ/kg ee = W/EC = (1912/4286.5)x100% = 44.6% (f) m = 3600/W = 3600/1912 = 1.88 kg/kWh Steam flow rate = (40,000 kWh)(1.88 kg/kWh) = 75,200 kg/h or 20.89 kg/s

Introduction The thermal efficiency of a simple power plant is less than fifty percent (50%). This means that more than half of the heat added to the water in the boiler is just wasted and rejected in the condenser. In order to utilize some of these heats that would have been wasted and rejected in the condenser, part of the throttle steam is extracted or bled for feedwater heating after it has partially expanded in the turbine. The extraction/ bled points occur near the saturation state. The process of heating feedwater in this manner is called regeneration and the cycle governing it is the REGENERATIVE CYCLE.

Increase in thermal efficiency By definition, e=WNET/Q . Examining the equation, the two ways of increasing the thermal efficiency are (a) by increasing the net cycle work and (b) by reducing the heat supplied, QA . The temperature of feedwater entering the boiler in the regenerative cycle (tB5) is higher than that of the original Rankine cycle (tB). Since the feedwater enters the boiler at a relative high temperature, a smaller quantity of heat is needed to transform it to steam than without the regenerative feedwater heating. This in effect tend to increase the thermal efficiency.

Increase

in thermal efficiency It is true that the net work done per kilogram of the throttle steam in the regenerative cycle is less than that of the Rankine cycle as the consequence of the extraction of steam for feedwater heating. This tends to decrease the thermal efficiency. But the rate of decreased in the heat supplied, QA is faster than the reduction rate in the net cycle work, WNET. Therefore, the net result of this is an increase in thermal efficiency.

Decrease

in the moisture content during the later stages of expansion. It is a fact that the quality of exhaust steam for both cycles are the same, i.e., x2 (Rankine cycle) = x3 (Regenerative cycle). But the quantity of exhaust steam decreases in the regenerative cycle as the result of the bleeding process. Therefore, the moisture content decreases.

Plant Layout of Regenerative Cycle With One Stage of Extraction for Feedwater Heating

Basis:

1kg of throttle steam Mass of Bled Steam, m Mass Balance: min = mout mB4 + m = 1 Energy Balance: Ein = Eout mh2 + mB4hB4 = m5h5 mh2 + (1 - m)hB4 = (1)h5

Alternate Method: Heat Balance: Heat from bled steam = Heat to feedwater m(h2 h5) = mB4(h5 hB4) m(h2 h5) = (1-m)(h5 hB4)

The condensate pump work is often small so that it can be neglected. Neglecting condensate pump work, hB4 = h4

It can now be said that for any feedwater heater using direct contact type (open heaters).

mass of bled steam = mass of feedwater leaving the heater


(General Equation)
Neglecting

pump works

h6 hB6 h5 hB5 Applying the general equation for determining the quantity of bled steam,

Heat Supplied, QA Pump: Energy Balance:

Boiler: Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout WP2 + h5 = hB5 Where: WP2 = vf5 (PB5 P5)


Ein = Eout QA + hB5 = Eout QA = h1 - hB5 hB5 = h5 + WP2 QA = h1 - h5 - WP2

But: Therefore:

Heat

Rejected, QR Energy Balance:


Ein = Eout (1 - m)h3 = QR + (1 - m)h4 QR = (1 - m)(h3 h4)

Engine

Work, W Energy Balance:

Ein = Eout h1 = mh2 + (1 - m)h3 + W W = h1 - mh2 - (1 - m)h3 = h1 - mh2 - (1 - m)h3 + h2 - h2 = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)h2 - (1 - m)h3 W= (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 h3) Another method: W = W (stage work) W = W1-2 + W2-3 = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 h3)

Total Pump Work, WP WP = WP1 + WP2 WP1 = vf4 (PB4 P4) WP2 = vf5 (PB5 P5) Approximate Total Pump Work WP = vf4 (PB5 P4) Net Cycle Work, WNET WNET = W WP WNET = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 h3) - WP Thermal efficiency, eC

Engine Analysis Work, W W = (h1 - h2) + (1-m)(h2 h3) Energy Chargeable, EC The engine is charged with the enthalpy of steam entering the engine and credited with the enthalpy of feedwater leaving the last heater assuming that all the bled steam are used for feedwater heating. EC = Enthalpy of steam entering the turbine - Enthalpy of feedwater leaving the last heater For the given cycle EC = h1 h5 Thermal efficiency, ee

Any presence of the following conditions will make an ideal cycle an actual one. Pressure drop in the boiler. P1< PB5 Pressure drop in the steam line (1-1) P1< P1 Pressure drop in the condenser. P4< P3 Pressure drop in the bled steam line. P2< P2 Pressure drop in the feedwater line. PB5< PB5 Heat losses in the steam lines (1-1) and (2-2). Heat losses in the turbine Inefficient Pump Heat losses in the heaters.

Plant Layout of Actual Regenerative Cycle with One Stage of Extraction for Feedwater Heating

Heat Added, QA QA = h1 hB5

Heat Rejected, QR QR = (1-m)(h3 - h4) Mass of Bled Steam

Engine Work, W W = (h1 h2)+(1-m)(h2 h3)

Pump

Work, WP WP = WP = WP1 + WP2

Net

Cycle Work, WNET WNET = W WP Thermal Efficiency, EC

3 10, p.107 Steam is delivered to an engine at 5.4 MPa and 600C. Before condensation at 31C, steam is extracted for feedwater heating at 0.60 MPa. For an ideal cycle, find (a) the amount of steam extracted (b) W and (c) e. For an ideal engine and the same states, compute (d) W and e and (e) steam rate.

h1 = h @ 5.40 MPa and 600C = 3663.3 kJ/kg h2 = h @ 0.6 MPa and S2 = S1 = 2987 kJ/kg h3 = h @ 0.004469 MPa and S3 = S1 = 2187 kJ/kg h4 = hf @ 31C = 129.97 kJ/kg h5 = hf @ 0.60 MPa = 670.56 kJ/kg vf4 = vf @ 31C = 1.0064x10-3 m3/kg vf5 = vf @ 0.60 MPa = 1.1006x10-3 m3/kg WP2 = vf5 (PB5 P5) = (1.1006x10-3)(5400-600) WP2 = 5.3 kJ/kg WP = vf4 (PB5 P4) = (1.0064x10-3)(5400-4.496) WP = 5.42 kJ/kg hB5 = h5 + WP = 670.56 + 5.3 = 675.86 kJ/kg

Heat Balance:
(1-m)(h5 h4) = m(h2 h5)

m = 0.1898 kg of throttle steam WNET = W WP = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m)(h2 h3) WP WNET = 3663.3 2978 + (1 - 0.1898)(2978 2187)-5.42 WNET = 1320.75 kJ/kg QA = h1 hB5 = 3663.3 675.86 = 2987.44 kJ/kg eC = WNET /QA = (1320.75 / 2987.44)x100% = 44.2% W = h1 h2 + (1 - m)(h2 h3) W = 3663.3 2978 + (1 0.1898)(2978 2187) W = 1326.3 kJ/kg ee = W/(h1 h2) = [1326.2/(3663.3-670.56)]x100% = 44.3% m = 3600/1362.2 = 2.71 kg/kWh

In

this cycle, the reheat cycle and the regenerative cycle are combined to attain the following objectives.
Further improvement in the overall thermal efficiency.

1.

2.

Further reduction in the moisture content of steam during the latter part of the expansion process.

The solution to a reheat-regenerative cycle problems differs from that of the previous cycles namely: reheat cycle, Rankine cycle, and regenerative cycle. It does not follow fixed set of formulas nor there is a fixed pattern. Each problem requires a particular solution although the same laws, definitions, and principles are still being used. Problems can best be solved by energy balance and mass balance.

CASE

Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle: after some expansion, steam is extracted for feedwater heating; after further expansion, there is a reheat; then expansion to exhaust. Write the equations for (a) the quantity of extracted steam, (b) the net work, and (c) the thermal efficiency. The equations should refer to a T-s Diagram with named points.

Mass

of Bled Steam, m General Equation: mass of bled steam = mass of feedwater leaving the heater

Neglecting condensate pump work (Pump 1) hB6 h6

Net

Cycle Work, WNET Engine Work, W First Method: Energy Balance: Ein = Eout h1 + (1 - m)h4 = mh2 + (1 - m)h3 + (1 - m)h5 + W W = h1 + (1 - m)h4 - mh2 + (1 - m)(h3 + h5) Second Method: W = W of stages of expansion = W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-4

= h1 h2 + (1 - m)(h2 h3) + (1 - m)(h4 - h5)

Total

Pump Work, WP WP = WP1 + WP2 Exact formula: WP = vf5 (PB6 P6) + vf7 (PB7 P7) Approximate formula: WP = vf5 (PB7 P6) WNET = Engine work Pump work = W WP = h1 h2 + (1 - m)(h2 h3) + (1 - m)(h4 - h5) - vf5 (PB7 P6)

Thermal Efficiency, e

Heat Added, QA QB = h1 hB7 QB = h1 h7 - WP2 But:

WP2 = vf7 (PB7 P7) QRH = (1 - m)(h4 h2)


General Equation: QA = QBoiler + QReheaters = (h1 h7 - WP2)+(1 - m)(h4 h3)

CASE

2 Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle, with, first, an extraction for feedwater heating, then later a single reheating, and finally, two extraction points for feedwater heating. Sketch the energy diagram and write equations for (a) the quantity of steam extracted at each point, (b) the work from QA and QR and the turbine work, and (c) the thermal efficiency of the cycle. The equation should refer to a T-s diagram with named points.

Note:

Pump 1 is condensate pump Pump 4 is main boiler feedwater pump

P2 = P11 = PB10 P5 = P10 = PB9 P6 = P9 = PB8

PB11 = P1 P7 = P 8 P3 = P 4

Mass

of Bled Steam Neglecting condensate pump work and pump works between heaters. Last Heater:

hB8 h8

hB9 h8

hB10 h10

Second Heater:

First Heater:

Work Cycle

Work, WNET

QB = h1 hB11 QB = h1 h11 WP4 QB = h1 h11 vf11 (PB11 P11) QRH = (1 - m1)(h4 h3)
QA = QBoiler + QReheaters
= h1 h11 vf11 (PB11 P11) + (1-m1)(h4 h3)
QR = (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 h8)

Therefore, net cycle work based from QA and QR is, WNET = QA QR = h1 h11 vf11 (PB11 P11) + (1-m1)(h4 h3) - (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 h8) Turbine Work, W First Method: Energy Balance: Ein = Eout h1 + (1 - m1)h4 = m1h2 + (1 - m1)h3 + m2h5 + m3h6 + (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7 + W W = h1 + (1 - m1)h4 - m1h2 - (1 - m1)h3 - m2h5 - m3h6 - (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7

Second Method: W = W1-2 + W2-3 + W3-4 + W4-5 + W5-6 + W6-7 W=(h1 h2) + (1 m1)(h2 h3) + (1 - m1)(h4 - h5) + (1 - m1 - m2) (h5 h6) + (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h6 h7) Thermal Efficiency, eC

CASE

3 The same as Case 2 except that the three extraction points occur after the reheating of Bled Steam Last Heater: Second Heater: Third Heater:

Mass

Work Cycle

Work, WNET
QB = h1 hB11 QB = h1 h11 WP4 QB = h1 h11 vf11 (PB11 P11) QRH = h3 h2

QA = QBoiler + Qreheaters QA = h1 h11 vf11 (PB11 P11) + (h3 h2) QR = (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 h8) (Same as in Case 2)

WNET = QA QR = h1 h11 vf11 (PB11 P11) + (h3 h2) - (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h7 h8) Turbine Work Ein = Eout h1 + h3 = h2 + m1h4 + m2h5 + m3h6 + (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7 + W

W = h1 + h3 [h2 + m1h4 + m2h5 + m3h6 + (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)h7]

Another

Method:

W + W5-6 + W6-7 W = (h1 h2) + (h2 h3) + (1 - m1)(h4 - h5) + (1 - m1 - m2) (h5 h6) + (1 - m1 - m2 - m3)(h6 h7) Thermal Efficiency, eC

CASE

4 Assume an ideal reheat-regenerative cycle: after some expansion, part of the steam is extracted for feedwater heating; the remainder are withdrawn and reheated to the original temperature; after further expansion, a second extraction occurs; then expansion to exhaust. Write the equations for (a) the quantity of steam extracted and (b) the turbine work.

Mass

of Bled Steam Open Heater no. 1

Open Heater no. 2

Turbine

Work, W

Ein = Eout h1 + (1 - m1)h3 = m1h2 + (1 - m1)h2 + m2h4 + (1 - m1 - m2)h5 + W W = (h1 + h2) + (1 - m1)h3 - m2h4 - (1 - m1 - m2)h5

Or W = W1-2 + W3-4 + W4-5


W = (h1 - h2) + (1 - m1)(h3 - h4) + (1 - m1 - m2) (h4- h5)

3 14, p.133
Steam at 5 MPa and 365C enters a turbine and expands until it becomes saturated. The steam is withdrawn and reheated to 330C. After expansion in the turbine to 150C, m1 kg is extracted for feedwater heating. The remaining steam expands to the condenser pressure of 0.016 MPa. For 1 kg of steam, find WNET, eC, ee, and the ideal steam rate.

h1 = h @ 5 MPa and 365C = 3108 kJ/kg h2 = h @ S2 = S1 and saturated = 2786 kJ/kg h3 = h @ 1.25 MPa and 330C = 3110 kJ/kg h4 = h @ 0.28 MPa and 150C and S4 = S3 = 2762 kJ/kg h5 = h @ 0.016 MPa and S5 = S4 = 2315 kJ/kg h6 = hf @ 0.016 MPa = 231.56 kJ/kg h7 = hf @ 0.28 MPa = 551.48 kJ/kg vf6 = vf @ 0.016 MPa = 1.0147x10-3 m3/kg vf7 = vf @ 0.28 MPa = 1.0709x10-3 m3/kg WP2 = vf7 (P1 P7) = (1.0709x10-3)(5000-280) WP2 = 5.05 kJ/kg hB7 = h7 + WP2 = 551.48 + 5.05 = 556.5 kJ/kg WP = vf6 (P1 P6) = (1.0147x10-3)(5000-16) WP = 5.06 kJ/kg

Heater:

= 0.1264 kg W = (h1 h2) + (h3 h4) + (1 m1)(h4 h5) = (3106 2786) + (3110 2762) + (1- 0.1264)(2762 2315) = 1060.5 kJ/kg WNET = W WP = 1060.5 - 5.06 = 1055.4 kJ/kg QA = h1 hB7 + h3 h2 = 3108 551.48 + 3100 2786 = 2875.5 kJ/kg EC = h1 hf7 + h3 h2 = 3108 551.48 + 3100 2786 = 2880.5 kJ/kg eC = WNET /QA = (1055.4 / 2875.5)x100% = 36.70% ee = W/EC = (1060.5/2880.5)x100% = 36.82% m = 3600/1060.5 = 3.39 kg/kWh

The

ideal incomplete-expansion cycle is composed of the following processes: 1-2: Isentropic expansion process in the engine, s = C 2-3: Constant volume rejection of heat process in the engine, V = C 3-4: Constant pressure rejection of heat process in the condenser, P = C 4-B: Reversible adiabatic pumping process, s=C B-1: Constant pressure addition of heat process in the boiler, P = C

Engine

Work, W

Recalling isentropic and isometric processes.

Isentropic

Isometric

Neglecting P and K, the area behind the curve on the PV plane represents the work of a steady flow process. For isentropic process: WS = area behind the curve, area 1-2-a-b-1 WS = h1 h2
For isometric process: WS = area behind the curve, area 2-3-c-d-2 WS = v2(P2 P3)

For incomplete-expansion with zero clearance:

W = W1-2 + W2-3 W = h1 h2 + v2(P2 P3)

Heat

Added, QA

Ein = Eout QA + h B = h 1 QA = h 1 - h B

Incomplete

expansion engine almost always operate with a low initial pressure, hence, the pump work is very small so that it can be neglected. From the pump energy balance: h B = h 4 + WP WP 0 hB h 4 QA = h 1 h 4

Thermal

Efficiency, eC

Energy

Chargeable, EC EC = h1 + hf3 Thermal Efficiency, e

Mean

Effective Pressure, MEP or Pm Ideal Mean Effective Pressure

Indicated Mean Effective Pressure, MEPI

Brake

Mean Effective Pressure, MEPB

Combined

Mean Effective Pressure, MEPK

Steam Rate, m Ideal Steam Rate, m

Indicated Steam Rate, mI

Brake Steam Rate, mB

Combined Steam Rate, mK

Thermal

Efficiency, e Indicated Thermal Efficiency, eI


Brake

Thermal Efficiency, eB

Combined

Thermal Efficiency, eK

Engine

Efficiency, n Indicated Engine Efficiency, nI

Brake

Engine Efficiency, nB

Combined

Engine Efficiency, nK

Mechanical

Efficiency, nm

Generator

Efficiency, ng

Approximate

Enthalpy of Exhaust Steam, he

Where:

W = actual work W = WI, indicated work


Energy Balance:

h1 = Qloss + WI + he
he = h1 - Qloss - WI

eI = nIe Proof:

eB = nBe Proof:

eK =

nKe Proof:

eK =

ngnmeI Proof: eK = ngnmeI

nm = mI/mB Proof:

nm = eB/eI Proof:

ng =

eK/eB

Proof:

nK = nInmng

Proof:

mK = mI/nmng Proof:

3 -19, p. 154 Steam at 1.10 MPa and 250C is delivered to the throttle of an engine. The steam expands to 0.205 MPa, where release occurs. Exhaust is at 0.105 MPa. A test of the engine showed an indicated steam consumption of 13.28 kg/kWh and a mechanical efficiency of 85%. Find (a) the ideal work and ideal thermal efficiency, (b) the ideal steam rate, (c) the brake and indicated works, (d) the brake thermal efficiency, (f) the MEP of the ideal engine and the indicated MEP.

Given:
P1 = 1.10 MPa T1 = 205C h1 = 2834.2 kJ/kg S1 = 6.6659 kJ/kg-K hf2 = 508.03 hfg2 = 2199.8 sf2 = 1.5386 sfg2 = 5.5803

@ P2 = 0.205 MPa
vf2 = 0.0010613 vfg2 = 0.86444

S2 = Sf2 + x2 Sfg2 S2 = 1.5386 + (x2) 5.5803 x2 = 0.9188 = 91.88% h2 = hf2 + x2 hfg2 h2 = 508.03 + (0.9188) 2199.8 h2 = 2529.2 kJ/kg v2 = vf2 + x2 vfg2 v2 = 0.0010613 + (0.9188) 0.86444 v2 = 0.7953 m3/kg h4 = hf3 = hf @ 0.105 MPa = 423.24 kJ/kg

W = h1 h2 + v2(P2 P3) W = 2834.2 2529.2 + (0.7953)(205 105) W = 384.5 kJ/kg ee = W/(h1 hf3) = [384.5/(2834.2-423.24)] x100% ee = 15.95% m = 3600/W = 3600/384.5 = 0.363 kg/kWh WI = 3600/mI = 3600/13.28 = 271.1 kJ/kg WB = nm WI = (0.85)(271.1) = 230.4 kJ/kg eB = WB/(h1 hf3) = [230.4/(2834.5-423.24)]x100% = 9.56% nB = WB/W = (230.4/384.5)x 100% = 59.92% Ideal MEP = W/v2 = 384.5/0.7953 = 483.47 kPa Indicated MEP = WI/v2 = 271.1/0.7953 = 340.88 kPa

Superposition or topping unit is a new set of high-pressure equipment to be added or topped into the existing system with the idea of increasing the capacity of the whole system and at the same time replacing the old boiler (oil-fired) with a new high-pressure steam generator (coal-fired). As shown in the diagram, the new Hp turbine or the topping unit is a non-condensing turbine and its exhaust will be utilized by the old lowpressure turbine.

3 24, p.166
A 30,000 kW existing plant has the following throttle conditions: PS = 1.50 MPa; TS = 260C The steam rate of this plant is 5.67 kg/kWh. An additional 12,500 kW is wanted from this superposed unit using an average indicated efficiency of 78% and a mechanical-electrical efficiency of 98%, estimate the steam conditions of the superposed plant.

hs = h @1.5 MPa, 260C = 2946.7 kJ/kg ms = (mk)(Pk) =(5.67)(30,000) = 170,100 kg For the topping unit: mk = ms/output = 170100/12500 = 13.6 kg/kWh WK = 3600/ mk = 3600/13.6 = 264.7 kJ/kg WI = W/nme = 264.7/0.96 = 275.73 kJ/kg WI = h t h s 275.73 = ht 2946.7 ht = 3222.43 kJ

h0 :

@ point 0, P0 = 1.5 MPa h0 = 2868.93 kJ/kg then; S0 = 6.52 kJ/kg-K @ point t, St = S0 = 6.52 kJ/kg-K ht = 3222.43 kJ/kg then; Pt = 6.0 MPa and Tt = 416C

15 174 (Sta. Maria) A reheat-regenerative engine receives steam at 207 bar and 593C, expanding it to 38.6 bar, 343C. At this point, the steam passes through a reheater and reenters the turbine at 34.5 bar, 593C, hence expands to 9 bar, 492C, at which point the steam is bled for feedwater heating. Exhaust occurs at 0.07 bar. Beginning at the throttle (point 1), these enthalpies are known (kJ/kg)
h1=3511.3 h2=3010.0 h2=3082.1 h3=3662.5 h4=3205.4 h4=322.9 h5=2308.1 h6=163.4 h7=723.59 h7=742.83

For ideal engine, sketch the events on the T-s plane and for 1 kg of throttle steam, find (a) the mass of bled steam, (b) the work, (c) the efficiency, and (d) the steam rate. In the actual case, water enters the boiler at 171C and the brake engine efficiency is 75% (e) determine the brake work and the brake thermal efficiency. (f) Let the pump efficiency be 65%, estimate the enthalpy of the exhaust steam.

@Pt. 1: P1 = 20.7 MPa; T1 = 593C Tsat = 368.635C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH h1 = 3511.3 kJ/kg @Pt. 2: P2 = 3.86 MPa; T2 = 343C Tsat = 244.23C ; Tsat < T2 ; Therefore, SH h2 = 3010.0 kJ/kg @Pt. 3: P3 = 3.45 MPa; T3 = 593C Tsat = 241.77C ; Tsat < T3 ; Therefore, SH h3 = 3662.5 kJ/kg
T(C) S (kJ/kg-K)

580 593
600

7.3880 S3
7.4409

Interpolate:

S3 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K = S4 = S5
@Pt. 4: P4 = 0.90 MPa; T4 = 492C Tsat = 175.38C ; Tsat < T4 ; Therefore, SH h4 = 3205.4 kJ/kg

S4 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K
@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.007 MPa; S5 = 7.42239 kJ/kg-K Sg = 8.2758 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore,WET h5 = 2308.1 kJ/kg

@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.007 MPa; Saturated Liquid


h6 = hf6 = 163.40 kJ/kg S6 = Sf6 = 0.5592kJ/kg-K v6 = vf6 = 1.0074x10-3 m3/kg

@Pt. B6: PB6 = 0.90 MPa; SB6 = 0.5592kJ/kg-K Sf = 0.6224 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf; Therefore, SUBCOOLED @Pt. 7: P7 = 0.90 MPa; Saturated Liquid h7 = hf7 = 742.83 kJ/kg S7 = Sf7 = 2.0946 kJ/kg-K v7 = vf7 = 1.212x10-3 m3/kg @Pt. B7: PB7 = 20.7 MPa; SB7 = 2.0946 kJ/kg-K Sf = 4.0762 kJ/kg-K; SB7 < Sf; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

Mass of Bled Steam Ein = Eout mh4 + (1 m)h6 = 1h7 m(3205.4) + (1 m)163.40= 742.83 3205.4m + 163.40 163.40m = 742.83 3042m = 579.43 m = 0.19 kg

Work Ein = Eout 1h1 + 1h3 = 1h2 + mh4 + (1 - m)h5 + W 3511.3 + 3668.5 = 3010 + (0.19)(3205.4) + (1 - 0.19) (2308.1) + W W = 1685.213 kJ/kg Efficiency, e ee = W/EC EC = (h1 h7) + (h3 h2) EC = 3511.3 - 742.83 + 3662.5 3010.0 EC = 3420.7 kJ/kg ee = 1685.213 / 3420.7 = 49.26% Steam Rate, m m = 3600/W m = 3600 / 1685.213 = 2.14 kg/kWh W B , eB WB = nB W WB = (0.75)(1685.213) = 1263.91 kJ/kg eB = WB /EC = 1263.91/3420.7 = 37%

16 174-175 (Sta. Maria) In a 35,000 kW turbo-generator that receives steam at 6.9 MPa and 370C, 11% of the throttle steam is actually extracted at 2MPa, 215C; with the remainder being reheated to 1.8 MPa and 315C; then 20% of the throttle steam is actually extracted at 0.724 MPa, each extraction serving an open feedwater heater. The engine exhaust to a condenser pressure of 0.005 MPa and the temperature of the feedwater from the last heater is 205C. The combined steam rate of the turbo-generator unit is 4.898 kg/kWh and the generator efficiency is 95%. For the total throttle flow to an ideal engine, find (a) extracted steam for the last heater, (b) W, (c) e. For the actual engine, find (d) eK (e) nK. (f) What is the enthalpy of the actual exhaust when the pump efficiency is 60% ?

@Pt. 1: P1 = 6.9 MPa; T1 = 370C Tsat = 284.905C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH h1 = 3077.6 kJ/kg S1 = 6.3314 kJ/kg-K @Pt. 2: P2 = 2 MPa; T2 = 215C Tsat = 212.42C; Tsat < T2 ; Therefore, SH h2 = 2807.2 kJ/kg S2 = 6.3566 kJ/kg-K @Pt. 3: P3 = 1.8 MPa; T3 = 315C Tsat = 207.15C; Tsat < T3 ; Therefore, SH h3 = 3063.2 kJ/kg S3 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 4: P4 = 0.724 MPa; S4 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K


P (MPa) 0.72 0.724 0.73 S (kJ/kg-K) 6.6985 Sg 6.6938

Sg = 6.69662 kJ/kg-K; S4 > Sg ; Therefore, SH Double Interpolation: @P = 0.72 MPa


S (kJ/kg-K) 6.8717 6.88105 6.9185 h(kJ/kg) 2843.7 h0.72 2866.0

Interpolate:

h0.72 = 2848.155 kJ/kg


@P = 0.73 MPa
S (kJ/kg-K) 6.8573 6.88105 6.9042 h(kJ/kg) 2842.6 h0.73 2865.0

h0.73 = 2853.94 kJ/kg

Interpolate:
P (MPa) 0.72 0.724 0.73 h (kJ/kg) 2848.155 h4 2853.94

h4 = 2849.31 kJ/kg @Pt. 5: P5 = 0.005 MPa; S5 = 6.88105 kJ/kg-K Sg = 8.3951 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore, WET S5 = Sf5 + x5 Sfg5 6.88105 = 0.4674 + (x5) 7.9187 x5 = 0.8088 = 80.88% h5 = hf5 + x5 hfg5 h5 = 137.82 + (0.8088)(2423.7) h5 = 2098.109 kJ/kg

@Pt. 6: P6 = 0.005 MPa; Saturated Liquid h6 = hf6 = 137.82 kJ/kg S6 = Sf6 = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K @Pt. B6: PB6 = 0.724 MPa; SB6 = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K
P (MPa) 0.72 0.724 0.73 S (kJ/kg-K) 2.0035 Sf 2.0091

Sf = 0.4764 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

@Pt. 7: P7 = 0.724 MPa; Saturated Liquid


P (MPa) 0.72 0.724 0.73 h (kJ/kg) 702.20 hf 704.64

hf = 703.176 kJ/kg

@Pt. 8: P8 = 2 MPa; Saturated Liquid h8 = hf8 = 908.79 kJ/kg S8 = Sf8 = 2.4474 kJ/kg-K

W = (h1 h2) + (1 m1)(h3 h4) + (1 - m1 m2)(h4 h5) W = (3077.6 2807.2) + (0.89)(3063.2 2849.31) + [1 0.11 (0.20)(0.89)](2849.31 2098.109) W = 995.6172/0.95 W = 1048.02 kJ/kg ee = W/EC EC = h1 hf8 + h3 h2 EC = 3077.6 908.79 + 3063.2 2807.2 EC = 2424.81 kJ/kg ee = (1048.02 / 2424.81) x100%= 43.22% mK = 3600/ WK WK = 3600 / 4898 = 734.99 kJ/kg eK = WK / EC eK = (734.99 / 2424.81)x100% = 30.31% nK = W K / W nK = (734.99 / 1048.02)x100% = 70.13%

17 175, p.175 There are developed 25,000 kW by a reheatregenerative engine (turbo-generator) which receives steam at 4.2 MPa, 313C and exhaust at 0.007 MPa. At 1.90 MPa and 215C, part of the steam is extracted for feedwater heating and the remainder is withdrawn for reheating. The reheated steam enters the turbine at 1.8 MPa and 270C and expands to 1.38 MPa, where more steam is extracted for feedwater heating and the remainder expands to the condenser pressure of 0.007 MPa and an actually quality of 90%. Feedwater leaves the last heater at a temperature of 207C. The generator has an efficiency of 95%. For the ideal engine, find (a) the percentages of the extracted steam, (b) W, and (c) e. Let the actual extracted steam be 85% of those for the ideal engine and for the actual engine, find (d) the total throttle flow, if the break work equal the fluid work, (e) eK and (f) nK.

@Pt. 1: P1 = 4.2 MPa; T1 = 313C Tsat = 253.31C; Tsat < T1 ; Therefore, SH


P (MPa) 310 313 320 h (kJ/kg) 2982.1 h1 3009.6

h1 = 2990.35 kJ/kg @Pt. 2: P2 = 1.9 MPa; T2 = 215C Tsat = 209.84C; Tsat < T2; Therefore, SH h2 = 2813.4 kJ/kg S2 = 6.3905 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 3: P3 = 1.8 MPa; T3 = 270C Tsat = 207.15C; Tsat < T3; Therefore, SH h3 = 2959.5 kJ/kg S3 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K

@Pt. 4: P4 = 1.38 MPa; S4 = S3 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K Sg = 6.4743 kJ/kg-K; S4 > Sg ; Therefore, SH Double Interpolation @ 1.35 MPa
S (kJ/kg-K) 6.6743
6.6976 6.6980

h (kJ/kg) 2881.9
h1.35 2893.9

Interpolate:

h1.35 = 2893.697 kJ/kg @ 1.40 MPa


S (kJ/kg-K) 6.6778 6.6976 6.7012 h (kJ/kg) 2891.7 h1.40 2903.7

h1.40 = 2901.854 kJ/kg

Interpolate:
P (MPa) 1.35 1.38 1.40 h (kJ/kg) 2893.697 h4 2901.854

h4 = 2898.59 kJ/kg @Pt. 5: P5 = 0.007 MPa; S5 = 6.6976 kJ/kg-K Sg = 8.2758 kJ/kg-K; S5 < Sg ; Therefore, WET S5 = Sf5 + x5 Sfg5 6.6976 = 0.5592 + (x5) 7.7167 x5 = 0.7955 = 79.55% h5 = hf5 + x5 hfg5 h5 = 163.40 + (0. 7955)(2409.1) h5 = 2079.839 kJ/kg

@Pt. 5: P5 = 0.007 MPa; x5 = 0.90 h5' = hf5 + x5 hfg5 h5' = 163.40 + (0. 90)(2409.1) h5' = 2331.59 kJ/kg @Pt. 6: P6 = 0.007 MPa; Saturated Liquid h6 = hf6 = 163.40 kJ/kg S6 = Sf6 = 0.5592 kJ/kg-K @Pt. B6: PB6 = 1.38 MPa; SB6 = 0.5592 kJ/kg-K Sf = 2.7778 kJ/kg-K; SB6 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED @Pt. 7: P7 = 1.38 MPa; Saturated Liquid h7 = hf7 = 827.29 kJ/kg S7 = Sf7 = 2.2778 kJ/kg-K @Pt. B7: PB7 = 1.90 MPa; SB7 = 2.2778 kJ/kg-K Sf = 2.4109 kJ/kg-K; SB7 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED @Pt. 8: P8 = 1.90 MPa; Saturated Liquid h8 = hf8 = 897.02 kJ/kg S8= Sf8 = 2.4233 kJ/kg-K @Pt. B8: PB8 = 4.2 MPa; SB8 = 2.4233 kJ/kg-K Sf = 2.8229 kJ/kg-K; SB8 < Sf ; Therefore, SUBCOOLED

of Extracted Steam:

m1 = 0.035

m2 = 0.234

= (h1 h2) + (1 m1)(h3 h4) + (1 - m1 m2)(h4 h5) W = (2990.35 2813.4) + (0.965)(2959.5 2898.59) + (0.731)(2898.59 2079.839) W = 834.24 kJ/kg ee = W/EC EC = h1 hf8 + h3 h2 EC = 2990.35 897.02 + 2959.5 2813.4 EC = 2239.43 kJ/kg ee = (834.24 / 2239.43) x100%= 37.25%

Thermodynamics 2 Section: 57003 Schedule: 7:00 9:40/ M - F


Group 5 Abangco, Kevin B. Honorario, James O. Pedroso, Elvin Louie R. Group 6 Arante, Kenneth V. Axalan, Jimwell M. Corpuz, Adrian Lorenzo G.

Polo, Napoleon S.
Sarmiento, Emmanuel G. Tagaya, Jerome M.

Dumalaon, Mark Lorenze R.


Rocela, Noriel E. Uyam, Jeffrey A. Jr.

Submitted to: Engr. Bienvenido D. Manuntag Jr.