WARM-UP #7

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

Genetic material of cells… • GENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT • Called NUCLEIC ACIDS • DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES .

or T) C3 C2 .DNA Nucleotide Phosphate Group O O=P-O O 5 CH2 O N C4 Sugar (deoxyribose) C1 Nitrogenous base (A. C. G.

(1953) .A HISTORY OF DNA SEE p.described the DNA molecule from Franklin’s X-ray. (1952) C.X-ray photo of DNA. Watson and Crick . Rosalind Franklin . Frederick Griffith – Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria (1928) B. 292-293 • Discovery of the DNA double helix A.

Watson & Crick proposed… •DNA had specific pairing between the nitrogen bases: ADENINE – THYMINE CYTOSINE .GUANINE •DNA was made of 2 long stands of nucleotides arranged in a specific way called the “Complementary Rule” .

T.DNA Double Helix “Rungs of ladder” Nitrogenous Base (A.G or C) “Legs of ladder” Phosphate & Sugar Backbone .

DNA Double Helix 5 O 3 3 P 5 4 3 2 1 O O 1 5 P G C 2 3 4 P 5 O 5 T O A O 3 P 5 P 3 P .

Nitrogenous Bases • PURINES 1. Guanine (G) A or G • PYRIMIDINES 3. Adenine (A) 2. Cytosine (C) T or C . Thymine (T) 4.

Chargaff’s Rule • Adenine must pair with Thymine • Guanine must pair with Cytosine • Their amounts in a given DNA molecule will be about the same. T A G C .

BASE-PAIRINGS H-bonds G C T A .

Genetic Diversity… • Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms. .

A T C G T A T G C G G… .The Code of Life… • The “code” of the chromosome is the SPECIFIC ORDER that bases occur.

297 DNA is wrapped tightly around histones and coiled tightly to form chromosomes .See p.

298 .DNA Replication • DNA must be copied • The DNA molecule produces 2 IDENTICAL new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing: A-T. G-C •Each strand of the original DNA serves as a template for the new strand See p.

Parental DNA . and each functions as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand. Watson and Crick showed: the two strands of the parental molecule separate. DNA Template New DNA .DNA Replication • Semiconservative Model: 1.

When does replication occur? T---? 3. Why is replication necessary? . Describe how replication works.Replication Quiz A---? G---? C---? 2. A---? G---? A---? 4. Use the complementary rule to G---? create the complementary C---? strand: A---? G---? T---? 1.

Why is replication necessary? G---C So both new cells will have the correct C---G DNA T---A 2. C---G 4. Use the complementary rule to A---T create the complementary strand: G---C T---A . A---T Enzymes unzip DNA and complementary G---C nucleotides join each original strand.Replication Quiz A---T 1. When does replication occur? A---T During interphase (S phase). Describe how replication works. G---C 3.

(1961) Watson & Crick proposed… • …DNA controlled cell function by serving as a template for PROTEIN structure. • 3 Nucleotides = a triplet or CODON (which code for a specific AMINO ACID) See p. .303 • AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins.

.DNA Transcription • DNA can “unzip” itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand. See p.301 • Both DNA & RNA are formed from NUCLEOTIDES and are called NUCLEIC acids.

304-305 We will discuss details of this on a later date .DNA Translation • The cell uses information from “messenger” RNA to produce proteins See p.

4.1. 2. 3. Why is translation necessary? Describe translation. identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC . 6. 5. Transcription/Translation Quiz Why is transcription necessary? Describe transcription. What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. Using the chart on page 303.

RNA polymerase binds to DNA. 3.1. separates the strands. 2. Why is transcription necessary? Transcription makes messenger RNA (MRNA) to carry the code for proteins out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Describe transcription. Why is translation necessary? Translation assures that the right amino acids are joined together by peptides to form the correct protein. then uses one strand as a template to assemble MRNA. .

DNA has thymine. 5. The cell uses information from MRNA to produce proteins. Describe translation. RNA has ribose. DNA has 2 strands. What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC tryptophan-glutamine-cysteine .4. 6. RNA has one strand. Using the chart on page 303. RNA has uracil. DNA has deoxyribose.

000 books) .AMAZING DNA FACTS… • DNA from a single human cell extends in a single thread for almost 2 meters long!!! • It contains information equal to some 600.000 printed pages of 500 words each!!! (a library of about 1.

Summarize the relationship between genes & DNA. 3.LET’S REVIEW DNA… LM p. Describe the overall structure of the DNA molecule. What are the 4 kinds of bases? . 2.44 1. Hershey & Chase drew from their experiments. List the conclusions Griffith & Avery. 4.

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