DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

Genetic material of cells… • GENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT • Called NUCLEIC ACIDS • DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES .

G.DNA Nucleotide Phosphate Group O O=P-O O 5 CH2 O N C4 Sugar (deoxyribose) C1 Nitrogenous base (A. or T) C3 C2 . C.

described the DNA molecule from Franklin’s X-ray. (1953) . 292-293 • Discovery of the DNA double helix A. Frederick Griffith – Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria (1928) B.A HISTORY OF DNA SEE p.X-ray photo of DNA. (1952) C. Watson and Crick . Rosalind Franklin .

GUANINE •DNA was made of 2 long stands of nucleotides arranged in a specific way called the “Complementary Rule” .Watson & Crick proposed… •DNA had specific pairing between the nitrogen bases: ADENINE – THYMINE CYTOSINE .

DNA Double Helix “Rungs of ladder” Nitrogenous Base (A.T.G or C) “Legs of ladder” Phosphate & Sugar Backbone .

DNA Double Helix 5 O 3 3 P 5 4 3 2 1 O O 1 5 P G C 2 3 4 P 5 O 5 T O A O 3 P 5 P 3 P .

Guanine (G) A or G • PYRIMIDINES 3. Thymine (T) 4. Cytosine (C) T or C .Nitrogenous Bases • PURINES 1. Adenine (A) 2.

Chargaff’s Rule • Adenine must pair with Thymine • Guanine must pair with Cytosine • Their amounts in a given DNA molecule will be about the same. T A G C .


Genetic Diversity… • Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms. .

A T C G T A T G C G G… .The Code of Life… • The “code” of the chromosome is the SPECIFIC ORDER that bases occur.

297 DNA is wrapped tightly around histones and coiled tightly to form chromosomes .See p.

DNA Replication • DNA must be copied • The DNA molecule produces 2 IDENTICAL new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing: A-T. G-C •Each strand of the original DNA serves as a template for the new strand See p. 298 .

Parental DNA . Watson and Crick showed: the two strands of the parental molecule separate. and each functions as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand. DNA Template New DNA .DNA Replication • Semiconservative Model: 1.

Use the complementary rule to G---? create the complementary C---? strand: A---? G---? T---? 1.Replication Quiz A---? G---? C---? 2. Why is replication necessary? . When does replication occur? T---? 3. Describe how replication works. A---? G---? A---? 4.

Use the complementary rule to A---T create the complementary strand: G---C T---A . C---G 4. Describe how replication works. G---C 3. When does replication occur? A---T During interphase (S phase). Why is replication necessary? G---C So both new cells will have the correct C---G DNA T---A 2.Replication Quiz A---T 1. A---T Enzymes unzip DNA and complementary G---C nucleotides join each original strand.

. • 3 Nucleotides = a triplet or CODON (which code for a specific AMINO ACID) See p.303 • AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins.(1961) Watson & Crick proposed… • …DNA controlled cell function by serving as a template for PROTEIN structure.

DNA Transcription • DNA can “unzip” itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand. .301 • Both DNA & RNA are formed from NUCLEOTIDES and are called NUCLEIC acids. See p.

DNA Translation • The cell uses information from “messenger” RNA to produce proteins See p.304-305 We will discuss details of this on a later date .

What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. Using the chart on page 303. identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC . Why is translation necessary? Describe translation. 2. 6. Transcription/Translation Quiz Why is transcription necessary? Describe transcription. 4. 3.1. 5.

RNA polymerase binds to DNA.1. . Describe transcription. Why is translation necessary? Translation assures that the right amino acids are joined together by peptides to form the correct protein. 3. separates the strands. Why is transcription necessary? Transcription makes messenger RNA (MRNA) to carry the code for proteins out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. then uses one strand as a template to assemble MRNA. 2.

4. DNA has thymine. The cell uses information from MRNA to produce proteins. RNA has uracil. DNA has 2 strands. 5. RNA has one strand. Using the chart on page 303. identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC tryptophan-glutamine-cysteine . DNA has deoxyribose. What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. Describe translation. 6. RNA has ribose.

000 printed pages of 500 words each!!! (a library of about 1.AMAZING DNA FACTS… • DNA from a single human cell extends in a single thread for almost 2 meters long!!! • It contains information equal to some 600.000 books) .

Describe the overall structure of the DNA molecule.LET’S REVIEW DNA… LM p. 4. 2.44 1. Hershey & Chase drew from their experiments. Summarize the relationship between genes & DNA. 3. List the conclusions Griffith & Avery. What are the 4 kinds of bases? .

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