DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

Genetic material of cells… • GENES – units of genetic material that CODES FOR A SPECIFIC TRAIT • Called NUCLEIC ACIDS • DNA is made up of repeating molecules called NUCLEOTIDES .

G. or T) C3 C2 . C.DNA Nucleotide Phosphate Group O O=P-O O 5 CH2 O N C4 Sugar (deoxyribose) C1 Nitrogenous base (A.

Rosalind Franklin .A HISTORY OF DNA SEE p. 292-293 • Discovery of the DNA double helix A.described the DNA molecule from Franklin’s X-ray. (1952) C.X-ray photo of DNA. Frederick Griffith – Discovers that a factor in diseased bacteria can transform harmless bacteria into deadly bacteria (1928) B. (1953) . Watson and Crick .

GUANINE •DNA was made of 2 long stands of nucleotides arranged in a specific way called the “Complementary Rule” .Watson & Crick proposed… •DNA had specific pairing between the nitrogen bases: ADENINE – THYMINE CYTOSINE .

DNA Double Helix “Rungs of ladder” Nitrogenous Base (A.T.G or C) “Legs of ladder” Phosphate & Sugar Backbone .

DNA Double Helix 5 O 3 3 P 5 4 3 2 1 O O 1 5 P G C 2 3 4 P 5 O 5 T O A O 3 P 5 P 3 P .

Adenine (A) 2. Thymine (T) 4. Cytosine (C) T or C .Nitrogenous Bases • PURINES 1. Guanine (G) A or G • PYRIMIDINES 3.

T A G C .Chargaff’s Rule • Adenine must pair with Thymine • Guanine must pair with Cytosine • Their amounts in a given DNA molecule will be about the same.


.Genetic Diversity… • Different arrangements of NUCLEOTIDES in a nucleic acid (DNA) provides the key to DIVERSITY among living organisms.

A T C G T A T G C G G… .The Code of Life… • The “code” of the chromosome is the SPECIFIC ORDER that bases occur.

See p. 297 DNA is wrapped tightly around histones and coiled tightly to form chromosomes .

G-C •Each strand of the original DNA serves as a template for the new strand See p.DNA Replication • DNA must be copied • The DNA molecule produces 2 IDENTICAL new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing: A-T. 298 .

and each functions as a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand. Watson and Crick showed: the two strands of the parental molecule separate.DNA Replication • Semiconservative Model: 1. DNA Template New DNA . Parental DNA .

Use the complementary rule to G---? create the complementary C---? strand: A---? G---? T---? 1. A---? G---? A---? 4. Describe how replication works. Why is replication necessary? .Replication Quiz A---? G---? C---? 2. When does replication occur? T---? 3.

C---G 4. Describe how replication works. Why is replication necessary? G---C So both new cells will have the correct C---G DNA T---A 2. G---C 3. Use the complementary rule to A---T create the complementary strand: G---C T---A . When does replication occur? A---T During interphase (S phase). A---T Enzymes unzip DNA and complementary G---C nucleotides join each original strand.Replication Quiz A---T 1.

.303 • AMINO ACIDS are the building blocks of proteins.(1961) Watson & Crick proposed… • …DNA controlled cell function by serving as a template for PROTEIN structure. • 3 Nucleotides = a triplet or CODON (which code for a specific AMINO ACID) See p.

See p. .DNA Transcription • DNA can “unzip” itself and RNA nucleotides match up to the DNA strand.301 • Both DNA & RNA are formed from NUCLEOTIDES and are called NUCLEIC acids.

DNA Translation • The cell uses information from “messenger” RNA to produce proteins See p.304-305 We will discuss details of this on a later date .

5. identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC . 4. What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. Transcription/Translation Quiz Why is transcription necessary? Describe transcription. 2. 3. 6. Using the chart on page 303.1. Why is translation necessary? Describe translation.

1. Describe transcription. separates the strands. then uses one strand as a template to assemble MRNA. RNA polymerase binds to DNA. Why is transcription necessary? Transcription makes messenger RNA (MRNA) to carry the code for proteins out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. 2. 3. . Why is translation necessary? Translation assures that the right amino acids are joined together by peptides to form the correct protein.

identify the amino acids coded for by these codons: UGGCAGUGC tryptophan-glutamine-cysteine . What are the main differences between DNA and RNA. RNA has one strand. 6. RNA has ribose. Describe translation. The cell uses information from MRNA to produce proteins. RNA has uracil. DNA has deoxyribose. DNA has 2 strands. 5. Using the chart on page 303. DNA has thymine.4.

000 printed pages of 500 words each!!! (a library of about 1.AMAZING DNA FACTS… • DNA from a single human cell extends in a single thread for almost 2 meters long!!! • It contains information equal to some 600.000 books) .

Hershey & Chase drew from their experiments. 2. List the conclusions Griffith & Avery.44 1. Summarize the relationship between genes & DNA. Describe the overall structure of the DNA molecule.LET’S REVIEW DNA… LM p. 3. 4. What are the 4 kinds of bases? .

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