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Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Theory

Muhammad Ayub Tareen

What we will cover


WDM Overview Optical Fiber Transmission Characteristics Key technologies of DWDM Technical Specifications

Background

WDM

TDM

SDM

PDH, SDH and DWDM


G.692

DWDM
G.957 G.691

SDH
155M 622M 2.5G 10G

PDH

Relationship between DWDM and Other Services

IP ATM SDH ATM IP Other

SDH DWDM

Open Optical Interface

Physical Fiber

WDM Definition
WDM enables transmitting multiple optical carriers with information (analog or digital) on one fiber
l1 l2 lN l1 l2

l1 l2

lN

lN

OA OMU ODU

DWDM Concept
Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM)
Power (dBm)

wavelength interval 0.82nm

1529 - 1560nm

(nm)

DWDM System
Optical Transmitter Ch 1 OTU1
Input 1

OLA

Optical Receiver
1

Ch 1 OTU1 OTUn
Output

OMU

ODU

OTUn

Ch N

BA s

LA s

PA s

Ch N
n

OSC OSC OSC

EMS

Common Network Elements in DWDM


Optical Terminal Multiplexer (OTM) Optical Line Amplifier (OLA) Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM)

Optical Terminal Multiplexer (OTM)


At the transmitter end, the OTM:
Multiplexes the STM-N signals of N wavelengths 1~N into a DWDM main optical channel Amplifies the optical power of the main channel via the multiplexer Adds an optical supervisory channel s
Client side 1 n Line side

At the receiving end, the OTM:


Extracts the optical supervisory channel s DWDM main optical channel is amplified and de-multiplexed into STMN signals of the N different wavelengths

1 n

OTM

Optical Line Amplifier (OLA)


OLA is configured in each direction of the fiber link OLA extracts the optical supervisory channel (OSC) and processes it It then amplifies the main optical channel signals, multiplexes them with the optical supervisory channel and sends them onto the fiber
Line side Line side

OLA

Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM)


OADM performs add/drop of wavelengths

Line side

Line side

1 n

1 n

Client side

OADM

Operational Wavelength Range


3.0 ~140THz 2.5 OH- absorption peak 2.0 Loss (dB/km) 1.5 1.0 0.5 O 0 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Wavelength (nm) E S C L OH- absorption peak OH- absorption peak ~50THz

O Band E Band S Band C Band L Band U Band

Original Extended Short Conventional Long Ultralong

1260-1360 nm 1360-1460 nm 1460-1530 nm 1530-1565 nm 1565-1625 nm 1625-1675 nm

Division Of Low-Loss Window


3.0 ~140THz 2.5 OH- absorption peak 2.0 Loss (dB/km) 1.5 1.0 0.5 O 0 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 Wavelength (nm) E S C L I OH- absorption peak II V III IV ~50THz OH- absorption peak

Feature Comparison between Low-Loss Windows


Window I II 1310 (O band) III IV V

Mark (nm)

850

1550 (C band)

1600 (L band)

1360 ~ 1530 (E + S bands)

Wavelength range (nm) Fiber type

600~900

1260~1360

1530~1565

1565~1625

1360~1530

MMF Short distance and low rate

MMF/G.652/ G.653 Short distance and low rate

G.652/G.653/ G.655

G.652/G.653/ G.655

Full-wave fiber

Applications

Long distance and high rate

Wavelength Allocation On C-Band


40 Channels / 100 GHz interval
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Central Frequency (THz) 192.1 192.2 192.3 192.4 192.5 192.6 192.7 192.8 192.9 Wavelength (nm) 1560.61 1559.79 1558.98 1558.17 1557.36 1556.55 1555.75 1554.94 1554.13

10
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

193.0
193.1 193.2 193.3 193.4 193.5 193.6 193.7 193.8 193.9 194.0

1553.33
1552.52 1551.72 1550.92 1550.12 1549.32 1548.51 1547.72 1546.92 1546.12 1545.32

Wavelength Allocation On C-Band


40 Channels / 100 GHz interval
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 194.1 194.2 194.3 194.4 194.5 194.6 194.7 194.8 194.9 195.0 195.1 1544.53 1543.73 1542.94 1542.14 1541.35 1540.56 1539.77 1538.98 1538.19 1537.40 1536.61

32
33 34

195.2
195.3 195.4

1535.82
1535.04 1534.25

35
36 37 38 39 40

195.5
195.6 195.7 195.8 195.9 196.0

1533.47
1532.68 1531.90 1531.12 1530.33 1529.55

DWDM vs. SDH


TDM DWDM Electrical Regenerator Multi-wavelength on for Single Wavelength Single Fiber, for Optical Amplification
Transmitter Electrical Regenerator Receiver

l1 l2 lN
l1 l2 lN
OA

l1
T R

l1 l2 lN
Optical Demultiplexer

Electrical Multiplex

Electrical Demultiplex Optical Multiplexer

DWDM Features
Large transparent transmission capacity greatly saves fiber resources Each wavelength can carry different signal: SDH 2.5Gbps, 10 Gbps, ATM, IP DWDM technology provides multiple virtual fiber channels in one physical fiber channel

SDH

DWDM

DWDM Features
Through super-long distance transmission technologies, the transmission cost is reduced
SDH

DWDM
Electrical Regenerator Light Amplifier

DWDM Features

32*10G 32*2.5G 16*2.5G 8*2.5G

Key technologies of DWDM

DWDM System
Optical Transmitter Ch 1
Input
1

OLA

Optical Receiver
1

Ch 1 OTU1
Output

OTU1 OTUn

OMU

ODU

Ch N

BA s

LA

PA s

Ch N
n

OTUn

OSC OSC OSC

EMS

Key Technologies Of DWDM


Optical Source Optical Multiplexer And De-multiplexer Optical Amplifiers The Supervision Of WDM System

Optical Source
Requirements of optical sources:
Larger dispersion tolerance value Standard and stable wavelength

Types of optical sources:


Light Emitting Diode (LED) Laser Diode (LD)

Optical Multiplexing and De-multiplexing Technology

Optical Multiplexer and Demultiplexer


Multiplexer Demultiplexer

Fiber

Supervision System Technology

Supervision System
Detection, control and management are basic requirements of all network operations To ensure secure operation of DWDM system, physically, the monitoring system is designed as an independent system separated from working channels and devices Used to transmit the NE management and supervision information related to DWDM system

Functions
Fault alarm Fault location Quality parameter supervision in the operation Control over backup line upon line interruption EDFA supervision

Optical Supervision Control (OSC)


OMU

OBA

OLA

OLA

OLA

OPA

ODU

OSC

OSC

OSC

OSC

OSC

ODU

OMU

OPA

OLA

OLA

OLA

OBA

Optical Supervision Control (OSC)


1510nm Signal speed : 2.048Mb/s Receiving sensitivity : -48dbm Transmission power : 0 ~ -7 dbm

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