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Assignment problem

The assignment problem is one of the fundamental combinatorial optimization problems in the branch of optimization or operations research in mathematics. It consists of finding a maximum weight matching in a weighted bipartite graph.

bipartite graph.
In the mathematical field of graph theory, a bipartite graph (or biograph) is a graph whose vertices can be divided into two disjoint sets and such that every edge connects a vertex in to one in ; that is, and are each independent sets. Equivalently, a bipartite graph is a graph that does not contain any odd-length cycles.

Simple example of bipartite graph

METHODS
A. COMPLETE ENUMERATION METHOD B. TRANSPORTATION METHOD C. SIMPLEX METHOD D. HUNGARIAN ASSIGNMENT METHOD

METHODS
COMPLETE ENUMERATION METHOD: In this method, all possible assignments are listed out and the assignment involving the minimum cost (maximum profit if the problem is of maximization type) is selected. It represents Optimal Solution.

TRANSPORTATION METHOD
Transportation problem can be represented as a classical transportation problem. As such, the problem is amenable to solution by applying the transportation method. The solution obtained by applying this method would be severely degenerate. This is because of optimality test in this method.

SIMPLEX METHOD
Simplex: A linear-programming algorithm that can solve problems having more than two decision variables.

SIMPLEX METHOD
The simplex technique involves generating a series of solutions in tabular form, called tableaus. By inspecting the bottom row of each tableau, one can immediately tell if it represents the optimal solution. Each tableau corresponds to a corner point of the feasible solution space. The first tableau corresponds to the origin. Subsequent tableaus are developed by shifting to an adjacent corner point in the direction that yields the highest (smallest) rate of profit (cost). This process continues as long as a positive (negative) rate of profit (cost) exists.

SIMPLEX METHOD

Step-1 Write the standard maximization problem in standard form, introduce slack variables to form the initial system, and write the initial tableau.

Step 2 Are there any negative indicators in the bottom row?

Step-3 Select the pivot column

Step 4 Are there any positive elements in the pivot column above the dashed line?

Step-5 Select the pivot element and perform the pivot operatio n

STOP The optimal solution has been found.

STOP The linear programming problem has no optimal solution

Simplex algorithm for standard maximization problems

Hungarian method

A method that is designed specially to handle the assignment problem in an efficient way is said to be hungarian method

HUNGARIAN METHOD
STEPS: Step 1: Subtract the smallest entry in each row from all the entries of its row. Step 2: Subtract the smallest entry in each column from all the entries of its column. Step 3: Draw lines through appropriate rows and columns so that all the zero entries of the cost matrix are covered and the minimum number of such lines is used.

HUNGARIAN METHOD
Step 4: Test for Optimality: (i) If the minimum number of covering lines is n, an optimal assignment of zeros is possible and we are finished. (ii) If the minimum number of covering lines is less than n, an optimal assignment of zeros is not yet possible. In that case, proceed to Step 5.

HUNGARIAN METHOD
Step 5: Determine the smallest entry not covered by any line. Subtract this entry from each uncovered row, and then add it to each covered column. Return to Step 3.