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What is a circuit?

Combination of electronic parts, wires connected between power sources. It's like a physical program. It's also like setting up dominoes in sequence.

What is a breadboard?
What are they good for? Creatings, organizing, and prototyping a circuit. Literally started out as a bread board with nails.

What are LEDs?

Light Emitting Diodes Diode Symbol + Arrows for light Points to ground

Hello World for a Circuit

Light and LED Parts: Battery Resistor LED

Why: Power Source An LED will light up when enough voltage is supplied but can also burn out if too much is allowed to pass through. The resistor will limit the voltage to prevent damage.
Do: Connect Battery, Resistor, LED

Series circuit example

Parallel Circuit example

Parallel and Series Circuit Example

Fundamental Parts
Resistor Capacitor Wire Diodes Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Battery Transistors Motors They each have a physical property that interacts with electricity. When put in combination various actions occur.

Resistors & Colour Coding

Objectives: What is a Resistor ? Types of Resistor Parameters affecting resistance value Determine the resistance of a resistor using the color code. Discuss how exceeding its power rating can cause damage to a resistor. Discuss the use of a variable resistor as a potentiometer.

What is Resistance ???

The action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with; "he encountered a general feeling of resistance from many citizens"; "despite opposition from the newspapers he went ahead" Any mechanical force that tends to retard or oppose motion

Electric resistance: a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms the military action of resisting the enemy's advance; "the enemy offered little resistance" immunity: (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease

Types of Resistors
Resistors are made in many forms but all belong in either of two groups:

Fixed resistors are made of metal films, high-resistance wire or carbon composition Variable resistors have a terminal resistance that can be varied by turning a dial, knob, screw, or anything else appropriate for the application

Fixed resistors have only one ohmic value, which cannot be changed or adjusted. One type of fixed resistor is the composition carbon resistor.

Metal film resistors are another type of fixed resistor. These resistors are superior to carbon resistors because their ohmic value does not change with age and they have improved tolerance.

Carbon resistors are very popular for most applications because they are inexpensive and readily available in standard sizes and wattages.


1 Watt

2 Watt

Wire-wound resistors are fixed resistors that are made by winding a piece of resistive wire around a ceramic core. These are used when a high power rating is required.


Schematic symbols are used to represent various types of fixed resistors.

Types of Resistors
Variable resistors can have two or three terminals. Most have three. Variable resistors are classified as a rheostat or a potentiometer, depending upon the application.
Rheostat: Two- or three-terminal device used as a variable resistor Potentiometer: Three-terminal device used for controlling potential levels

Variable resistors can change their value over a specific range. A potentiometer is a variable resistor with three terminals. A rheostat has only two terminals.


Types of Resistors
Most potentiometers have three terminals as shown. The knob, dial or screw in the center of the housing controls the motion of a contact that can move along the resistive element connected between the outer terminals. The contact is connected to the center terminal, establishing a resistance from a movable contact to each outer terminal.

Types of Resistors
The resistance between the
outside terminals a and c is always fixed at the full rated value of the potentiometer, regardless of the position of the wiper arm (b). The resistance between the wiper arm and either outside terminal can be varied from a minimum of 0 to a maximum value equal to the full rated value of the potentiometer. The sum of the resistances between the wiper arm and each outside terminal will equal the full rated resistance of the potentiometer

Factors affecting Resistance

The resistance of any material with a uniform cross-sectional area is determined by the following factors:
Material Length Cross-sectional Area Temperature

Resistance: Circular Wires

The higher the resistivity of a conductor, the higher its resistance. The longer the length of a conductor, the higher its resistance. The lower the cross-sectional area of a conductor, the higher its resistance. The higher the temperature of a conductor, the higher its resistance

The resistor color code can be used to determine the resistors ohmic value and tolerance.


What are resistors?

Resistors provide a specific amount of resistance to a path in a circuit or wire. Ohm's law is used to calculate the properties related to resistance. Ohm's Law: I = V/R I = Current measured in Amps V = Voltage measured in Volts R = Resistance measured in Ohms

Resistors are color coded.

Color Coding

Resistor Color Code Chart

1st. & 2nd Color Band Digit it Represents -----Multiplier----BLACK BROWN RED ORANGE YELLOW GREEN BLUE VIOLET GRAY

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9


X10 X100 X1,000 or 1K X10,000 or 10K X100,000 or 100K X1,000,000 or 1M Silver is divide by 100 Gold is divide by 10 Tolerances Gold= 5% Silver=10% None=20%


Resistor Color Code

1st band color gives 1st number 2nd band color gives 2nd number 3rd band color gives # of zeros 4th band color gives tolerance or

How to read it
Resistors are color coded for easy reading. To determine the value of a given resistor look for the gold or silver tolerance band and hold the resistor with this band to the right. Then read the colored bands left to right.

How to read it
Look at the 1st color band and determine its color. This maybe difficult on small or oddly colored resistors. Now look at the chart and match the "1st & 2nd color band" color to the "Digit it represents". Write this number down.

How to read it
Now look at the 2nd color band and match that color to the same chart. Write this number next to the 1st Digit. Match the 3rd color band with the chart under multiplier. This is the number you will multiple the other 2 numbers by. Write it next to the other 2 numbers with a multiplication sign before it.

How to read it
Example: First color is red which is 2 Second color is black which is 0 Third color is yellow which is 10,000 Tolerance is silver which is 10% Therefore the equation is: 2 0 x 10,000 = 200,000 Ohms 10%

How to remember the code

Remember the color codes with this sentence: Big Brown Rabbits Often Yield Great Big Vocal Groans When Gingerly Slapped.

Exceeding the power rating causes damage to a resistor.

Review: 1. Resistors are used in two main applications: as voltage dividers and to limit the flow of current in a circuit. 2. The value of fixed resistors cannot be changed. 3. There are several types of fixed resistors such as composition carbon, metal film, and wire-wound.

Review: 1. Carbon resistors change their resistance with age or if overheated. 2. Metal film resistors never change their value, but are more expensive than carbon resistors. 3. The advantage of wire-wound resistors is their high power ratings.

Review: 1. Resistors often have bands of color to indicate their resistance value and tolerance. 2. Resistors are produced in standard values. The number of values between 0 and 100 is determined by the tolerance.

Review: 1. Variable resistors can change their value within the limit of their full value. 10. A potentiometer is a variable resistor used as a voltage divider.

Resistors are commonly used to perform two functions in a circuit. The first use is to limit the flow of current in a circuit.

I=E/R I = 15 V / 30 I = 0.5 A

Resistors are commonly used to perform two functions in a circuit. The second use is to produce a voltage divider. A to B = 1.5 V A to C = 7.5 V A to D = 17.5 V B to C = 6 V B to D = 16 V C to D = 10 V

Which materials is used for making wires ? Which material is most widely used and why? Which material is least used and why?

K or M?
Many resistors have large amounts of resistance, so we use prefixes to have a handy short name k is for kilo and means 1000 times M is for mega and means 1,000,000 times (million)

If you have an
Orange Orange Brown Gold resistor What is its resistance? The first orange means 3 The second orange means 3 The brown means 1 zero The gold means 5% So answer is 330 ohms 5%

Now you try

Determine the resistance of each of the 3 resistors you have Then do the Resistor Color Code worksheet

Variable resistor: The potentiometer

Voltage dividers Try out the different pots.

Try resistors out in various combination to make different colors. Experiment by adding potentiometers to the leads.

LED and Photoresistor

Photoresistors change their resistance by the amount of light detected.

What are capacitors?

Capacitor is two separated charges. Known charge up time. Know discharge time. Two major kinds Electrolytic, asymmetric, bipolar Ceramic, symmetric

Capacitors in series

Capacitors in Parallel

They can provide energy, however briefly. They can smooth out a signal.

Attach the battery briefly to fill the capacitor.

Capacitors in series and parallel

Make a voltage regulator

Turn things on and off with a:

Wire Button Photoresistor Hall Effect Sensor Relay Transistor Button Switch

NPN Transistor

Hall Effect Sensor

Reed Switch Example

A reed switch is closed when a magnet is in close proximity. It is symmetric so it can placed either direction.

Tilt ball switch

Emergency on/off if project tips over.

Try changing the direction of the diode. What happens?