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ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

TOPIC 2:

OBJECTIVES
At the end, students should:

Understand cosmological perception in Islam. Memahami pandangan semesta Islam. Explain the main concepts in Islamic civilization. Menghuraikan Konsep Tamadun

Islam.

Understand the Jihad concept and its role in Islam. Memahami konsep Jihad dan
peranannya dalam kebangkitan Tamadun Islam.

Analyze the development of Islam in Malaysia. Menganalisis kebangkitan semula Islam


dan penerapannya di Malaysia.
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2.0. INTRODUCTION

To understand about Islamic civilization. Untuk


memahami tamadun Islam

Understand about the meaning of civilization in Islam.


Melihat/Mengkaji tamadun dalam konteks Islam

Islam is the way of life. Melihat/Mengkaji


Islam sebagai satu cara hidup

2.1 ISLAMIC WORLD VIEW (cosmological perception )


Islam is also the teaching brought by all prophets since Adam a.s.

Islam is derived from the Arabic root

WHAT IS ?

) "Salema": peace, purity,

submission and obedience. In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law.
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To place the will of Allah at the utmost level.

peace

pure

Surrender

Salama = salima ISLAM

MEANING OF ISLAM

2.1.2. CONTENTS OF Islm

Basic principles in Islm.


Prinsip-Prinsip Asas Islam

1. Aqidah (Belief)
2. Ibadah (Worship) 3. Akhlak (Ethics)
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2.1.3. Special Characteristics of Islam. Ciri-ciri Keistimewaan Islam 1. Rabbaniyyah (Godliness) 2. Alamiyyah (Universal in diversity. Tolerance to all cultures???). 3. Syumuliyyah (Complete/Comprehensive) 4. Thabat wa Murunah (Constant and Flexible) 5. Waqiiyyah (Hakikat/Realistic) 6. Inqilabiyyah (To Replace) 7. Tawazun (Balance between material & spiritual) 8. Wasatiyyah (justly balanced position/stand/track)
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1. Rabbaniyyah
Definition: Islam comes from Allah. Man simply executes based on Allahs orders
Ianya membawa erti bahawa Islam ini datangnya daripada Allah. Manusia hanya sebagai pelaksana segala ketentuan yang ditetapkan

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Category of Rabbaniyyah :
1. Rabbani in terms of goals and intentions Ones intentions has to be specifically for Allh i.e. his/ her ultimate goal in life is to get Allahs pleasure. 2. Rabbani in terms approach and resources Ones approach and resources should be based on the divine revelations to Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w)

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2. Alamiyyah (Universal)
Definition: The teaching of Islam is not for a certain race or community but it is for all ummah from all layers of society.
Risalah Islam ditujukan untuk semua umat dan bangsa serta untuk semua lapisan masyarakat. Ia bukan risalah untuk bangsa tertentu.

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Alamiyyah also means:


- Universal/ Suitable in the sense that the teachings of Islam transcend across time, space and geographical boundaries. - Applicable anywhere and anytime from past to the present and the future. Sesuai di semua tempat sama ada di Kutub Selatan, Khatulistiwa dan sebagainya.Ia juga sesuai untuk semua zaman sama ada zaman Rasulullah SAW atau zaman teknologi moden yang canggih ini. Sesuai sampai ke hari qiamat.

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3. Syumuliyyah
Definition: The teaching of Islam is complete and comprehensive. The scope of Islam is all-encompassing with guidance for all aspects of human life not excluding the smallest to the biggest of human conduct.
Ajaran Islam lengkap dan menyeluruh. Ruang lingkup ajaran Islam adalah mencakupi seluruh aspek kehidupan manusia tanpa kecuali dari sekecil-kecil urusan sampailah ke sebesar-besar perkara.

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4. Thabat & Murunah


Definition:
Fixed and firm in principles and flexible in practice. Tetap dari segi prinsip dan hukum tetapi anjal atau fleksibel dari segi perlaksanaannya.
E.g. Solat/ prayer is an obligation to all Muslims (thabaat) but its

practice could be done in flexible ways such as by jama and qasar for travellers. Another situation: A Muslim who faces illness, he/ she can pray by sitting, sleeping, etc.

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5. Waqiiyyah
Definition: Islam is realistic.
Islam adalah mengikut realiti. e.g: Islm recommends marriage and its also allows polygamy for man ... Contohnya: Manusia dari segi fitrahnya ingin hidup berpasangan, maka Islam mensyariatkan perkahwinan bagi lelaki dan perempuan dan berpoligami hanya bagi lelaki

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6. Inqilabiyyah
Definition:
Islam should be strictly practiced in all situations. It is clearly distinguished and should not be intermingled with any jahiliyyah practice or system
Menegakkan Islam atas keruntuhan jahiliyyah. Islam tidak boleh bercampur dengan jahiliyyah. Islam juga tidak boleh ditempeltempelkan pada sistem jahiliyyah. Islam menggantikan zaman

jahillyah

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7. Al-Tawazun
Definition:
Balance and integrated state between spiritual and physical (material) of the human life.
e.g. Struggle for properties for life, and at the same time pay the zakat and give sedekah.
Kewujudan keseimbangan dan kesepaduan antara kehidupan rohani dan jasmani.

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8. Al-Wasatiyyah
Definition:

1) Justly balanced position in

everything. Keep it everything in which lawful


according to Syarak such wearing clothes, eating, worship, pray etc in the justly balanced situation/ stand, not too extremes and not too simple. 2) Manage your life in properly and good condition such as time for study habit, eating habit, social life, sport etc.
Seimbang dalam melakukan setiap perkara yang diharuskan oleh syarak seperti berpakaian, makan, melakukan ibadah sunat dan seumpamanya.

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2.2. CONCEPT

OF ISLAMIC

CIVILIZATION. KONSEP TAMADUN ISLAM


Islamic civilization means

When

A Society Which Has Achieved Its Distinguished Moral Values and Culture -al Attas-

established

based on Islamic teachings Syed Qutb, Malik Bennabi, Prof. Richard E. Sullivan

the element of humanity laid by Allah becomes the utmost value in the society, then the society can be considered as Islamic & civilized society -Syed Qutb Fi Zilalil Quran21

2.2.2. GENERAL

OBJECTIVE OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION

To uphold Islm is the way of life.

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2.2.2. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

hubungan antara manusia dengan Allah s.w.t

Develop relationship with the God. Membina

Develop relationship with human beings.


Membina hubungan sesama manusia

Membina hubungan antara manusia dengan alam/ persekitaran


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Develop relationship with the world/ nature.

2.2.3. Maqasid Shariah as manisfestation for Islamic civilization.


Definition of Maqasid Shariah :

It refers to process in protecting 5 main things shared by human beings: Religion, soul, mind, descendents/ dignity and property. Its is the main objective for Islamic laws revealed. Ia merupakan
tujuan utama shariah (perundangan) dalam Islam yang melibatkan proses menjaga, memelihara, menjamin dan melindungi 5 perkara utama iaitu Agama, Nyawa, Akal, Maruah/Keturunan dan Harta.

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-In protecting religion

a)Doing all the obligatory deeds such as performing solat/ prayer, and strengthening faith

(iman).

Buat suruhan wajib spt tunaikan solat, kuatkan iman dll. Ia juga wajib tinggalkan apa yang dilarang oleh agama spt tidak murtad.

b)Protecting religion from been

deviated. Jaga/lindungi agama daripada dihina, difitnah,


dikeji oleh org Islam atau org bukan Islam.
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2.2.3. MAQASID SHARIAH

1) Protecting religion

2) Protecting human live/ soul

3) Protecting mind

4 Protecting descendents/ dignity.

5) Protecting property
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2.2.4. SOURCES IN ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION


Al-Quran. Al-Sunnah. Ijtihad. Qias Ijma (Ulama consensus)

all cultures and civilizations provided they are not contradict to Islamic teachings. Etc

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Main source: Al-Quran

Primary Sources

1) THE QURAN (absolute & final authority)

2) THE SUNNAH (explanation of the Quran)

Secondary Sources

3. Al IJMA (unanimous agreement of the muslim community)

4. Al QIAS (reasoning)

QURAN AL KAREEM
Definition: The word Quran is an infinitive noun from the word, qaraa means; (He collected together, he read or recited) ( al lafzul arabi, al munazzal ala Nabi s.a.w, al mu jizu bi suratin minhu, al manqul tawaturan, al muta abbun bi tilawatihi)

The Content of Al-Quran


1.

2.
3. 4.

5.
6. 7.

Legislative Worship Family Muamalat Jenayat Akhlak (Ethics) etc

AL- SUNNAH
Literally means a way, rule, a manner of action or

mode of life

Both Hadith and Sunnah, cover the same ground and defining the prophets actions, sayings and silent approval

The Categories of Sunnah


1) Sunnah Qauliah: saying of holy prophet which has influence a religious matters e.g: none of you (truly) believes until he wishes for is brother what he wishes for himself.

2) Sunnah Fiiliyyah: an action of prophet. e.g: perform your prayer as you see me praying
3) Taqrir: his silent approval of the action or practice of another e.g. case of eating Dhab among Sahabah (Companions)

IJMA
"Consensus" of legal scholars representing all Muslims (mujtahidin)
Persetujuan di antara ulama-ulama Islam selepas kewafatan Nabi Muhammad mengenai sesuatu hukum syarak.

E.g. The prohibition of cigarette smoking based on some evidences particularly the yat/ verse of the Holy book al-Qurn: .(195 :2 ) And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do good; for Allah loveth those who do good (al-Qurn , 2: 195).

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QIYAS
Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nas) to a new injunction
Menerangkan hukum sesuatu yang tidak ada nasnya dalam al-Quran dan Hadis dengan cara membandingkannya dengan sesuatu yang ditetapkan hukumnya berdasarkan nas. Bermaksud menyamakan sesuatu yang tidak ada nas hukumnya dengan sesuatu yang tidak ada nas hukumnya kerana adanya illat hukum.

Example for Qiyas


Legal evidence from the Qurn:

(90 : ) O ye who believe! intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination of Satan's handiwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper. Wahai orang-orang yang beriman! Bahawa sesungguhnya arak, dan judi, dan pemujaan berhala, dan mengundi nasib dengan batang-batang anak panah, adalah (semuanya) kotor (keji) dari perbuatan syaitan; oleh itu hendaklah kamu menjauhinya supaya kamu berjaya (alQurn, 5: 90).

SMOKING/

So intoxicant drink is prohibited in Islm. At the time

it was from grapes and its name was al- Khamr (), whereby nowadays there are so many materials that could become intoxicant drink whether it is from rice, pineapple, coconut, etc; and they do come by many names such Carlsberg, Stout, Beer, etc they are all harm in Islm based on the Qiys concept. Illah ()/ reason for justifying this Qiyas: is the intoxication and harmful for brain/ mind.

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2.3. EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION


Beginning of Islamic Civilization Islamic Civilization at prophethood time (Prophet Muhammad SAW) & Khulafa al Rasyidin. During Umayyah /Abbasiyyah periods. The spread and development of Islam to Africa, Europe, India and Asian continental

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2.4.1 Factors that leaded to excellence of Islamic civilization

Upholding the teachings of al-Quran dan al-Sunnah (Insan Rabbanigodliness individual generation).
Galakan
Pemerintah.

Good rulers/ ministers.

Political stability
Cooperation between the Muslims especially among their Muslim scholars and intellectuals. Kerjasama Para Ulama dan
Cendikiawan.
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2.4.3 Intellectual activities occurred in:


Economy. Medicine. Astronomy. Math. Architecture Etc

2.4.2. Development of Islamic knowledge to Europeans


Hubungan Diplomatik.

Diplomatic relation.

Translation activities.
Universities such as at Sicily.
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2.5. ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION DURING COLONIAL ERA


Teaching and Learning. Sistem Pengajaran dan

Pendidikan Maas media especially newspaper: materialistic generation - social problems. Alien ideologies such sekularisme, capitalism, darwnism, etc.

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2.6. JIHAD IN ISLAM

Jihad in upholding the

Islamic teachings. intention


(Nafsu).

Mempertahankan Kesucian Islam.

Jihad against lust/ bad

Jihad in education. Ilmu

dan pendidikan. Etc

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2.7 Islamic development in Malaysia.

Cultivating Islamic values in the

administration. Penerapan Nilai-Nilai Islam


dalam Pentadbiran Islam Had.ari
Its application in economy

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2.8. CONCLUSION
Islam is a universal religion for all man kind. Its emergence brought good changes to human beings and the world whereby its teachings address a lot on good values and behaviours. Islamic civilization brought one distinguished civilization to the world the history ever seen whereby its main concept as the way of life gives a new dimension to religion perception. It later on paved a way to European renaissence and development.

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Any Reminder / Debriefing about the topic in Topic 2

THANKS

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