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Chapter 8: Airport Security

Philip Gommesen Russ Patterson

Airport Security: A History of Incidents and Results

Philip Gommesen

Peruvian revolutionaries hijack Pan American mail plane
Plan to drop propaganda pamphlets over Lima After ten days they let pilot Byron Rickards go Revolution was successful


47 Romanians kill aircrew member
Only the second recorded hijacking

48 Hijacking of a Cathay Pacific seaplane

Crashed off Macao

6 pro-communist students hijack Greek T.A.E Airlines

Just wanted passage to Yugoslavia


59 Panair flight 246 en route from Rio de Janeiro
hijacked by officers of the Brazilian Air Force hijackers request asylum in Buenos Aires

Jack Graham plants bomb in mothers luggage

Planned to collect on life insurance instead received the death penalty


60, suicide bomber kills all aboard a National Airlines plane
sparks demands for the use of baggage-inspection devices

Rise of Castro 68 38 hijackings

39% (15) on flights between U.S. and Cuba 27 were attempted

69 82 hijackings
41% (34) on flights between U.S. and Cuba

61 Government places armed guards on commercial planes
when requested by the airlines or the FBI

President John F. Kennedy signed legislation for air piracy

prescribed the death penalty or at least 20 years' imprisonment

63, the Convention on Offenses and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft
(known as the Tokyo Convention)

69 FAA creates the Task Force on the Deterrence of Air Piracy

Develops the hijacker profile Airlines quickly adopt its use

71 D. B. Cooper 72 Bombs found on three airliners in same month
Several more violent hijackings take place

75 Bomb explodes at New York's LaGuardia Airport

in a locker, kills 11

70 United States and 49 other nations signed the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft
(Hague Convention)

President Nixon announces comprehensive antihijacking program

Included the Federal air marshal program

"Cooper Vane made it impossible to lower the rear stairs during flight.
72 First airport security regulations

Answers Cont.
73 Inspection of carry-on baggage and screening of passengers mandatory
By the airlines

74 Anti-hijacking bill signed

Sanctioned universal screening

75 Lockers located where they can be monitored 78 Airport security regulations formalized
FAR Part 107 Airport Security

83 Hijacking of two Capitol Air flights
less than two weeks apart

85 Lebanese terrorists hijack TWA Flight 847

1 dead, 155 let go after 2 weeks Ended when 31 Lebanese prisoners were released

EgyptAir flight 648 is hijacked

one of the deadliest in history Jackie Pflug is shot in the head but she survives

88 bombing of Pan American flight 103

270 people dead Libyan intelligence officer sentenced for his part in 2001

81 FAR Part 108 Airplane Operations Security
Formalized scanning and universal screening

85 International Security and Development Cooperation Act

Made Federal air marshals a permanent part of the FAA workforce

After 88 new international airport requirements

x-ray or search all checked baggage match passengers and their baggage

91 After February there are no hijackings in the U.S. 95 Former Governor of Virginia is roughed up by airline security 96 Two accidental airline crashes
Resulting from in-flight explosions

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 crashed into the Indian Ocean

After hijackers refused to allow the pilot to land and refuel 125 died and the remaining 50 survived Only the third incident of survivors after a jet was intentionally ditched into a body of water.

96 Commission investigates unintentional explosions
Led by then Vice President Al Gore Influenced FAA response to ban certain hazardous material

97 Federal appropriation to the FAA

Provide funds for airport security personnel and security equipment

99 DOT report accuses FAA of being slow to limit unauthorized access to secure access
OIG reported penetrating these areas repeatedly

01 The ten years of U.S. hijacking silence comes to a tragic end Terrorist attacks on World Trade Center
2,973 victims and the 19 hijackers died Over 70 countries were represented in the death toll

01 Aviation and Transportation Security Act
TSA is established under the Department of Transportation

No Fly and Selectee lists created 02 Federal government takes control of checkpoints
429 commercial airports

03 Department of Homeland Security

is established TSA, Coast Guard, Customs Service, and Immigration and Naturalization Service are placed under its authority

Airport Security: Positions Within TSA

Russ Patterson

Short videos
Screening TSA video Testing TSA video Air Marshal video Detection Canine Video

Positions Examined
Screeners Explosive Detection Canine Teams Air Marshals

Screening TSA

Screen passengers 43,000 trained and certified TSO at over 450 airports across the country

Security Check Points

Passengers pass through security check point to access departure gate where security officers screen you and your carry on baggage. Consists of a three step process.

Step 1- The x-ray machine

Place all carry on baggage and items you carry with you on the belt of the x-ray machine.

Step 1- continued
IN-OUT-OFF Place all metal items IN your carry on baggage before you reach the front of the line. Take your computer and video camera with cassettes OUT of their carrying case and place it in one of the bins provided. Take OFF your coat or jacket so that it can go through the x-ray machine.

Step 1- continued
TSA shoe screening You are required to remove your shoes before you enter the walk through metal detectors.

Step 2- walk through metal detector.

You will walk through the metal detector or you may receive a pat down inspection instead. You will undergo additional screening if you set of the alarm on the metal detector or if you are chosen for additional screening.

Step 3- Additional Screening

This screening includes a hand wand inspection in conjunction with a pat down inspection. If you must go through additional screening, the screener will direct you from the metal detector to screening station.

Step 3- continued
Hand wand inspection The hand wand inspection helps screeners to identify what may have set off the alarm on the metal detector. The screener will pass the wand over your entire body without touching you with the wand.

Step 3- continued
Carry on baggage If you bag is selected for additional screening , it may be opened and examined on a table in your presence.

Testing TSA
News report focus on failed testing

Covert Testing
Covert testing is a tool to identify vulnerabilities in the system and uncover weakness of training, procedures, or technology It is not designed to test an individual officer or airport but to act as a measure of system wide effectiveness and drive improvement through training

Types of Testing
Threat Image Projection Aviation Screening Assessment Program TSAs Office of Inspection

Threat Image Projection (TIP)

This electronic system randomly super imposes images of bombs and bomb part into real carry on bags. Officers can encounter a TIP image on any of the millions of carry on bags at checkpoints across the country any time of the day or night. These are tens of thousand of TIP images and the system is updated with the latest intelligence driven threats added on a regular basis.

Aviation Screening Assessment Program

These assessments uses inert bombs, bomb part and other threat items from check point bomb kits to identify weakness in our screening process in order to strengthen screening performance through training, procedures, or technology. These items are placed on TSA or local, state, and federal employees or in carry on or checked bags; passenger are never asked to conduct these assessments or any other TSA covert tests. TSA completed over 4500 assessment from coast to coast under this program recently.

TSAs Office of Inspection

This inspection office, led by Dave Holmes, conducts covert tests around the nation with no notice to local or headquarter official. These expert testers are trained in the latest methods of smuggling bombs, bomb parts and weapons through check point using techniques acquired by national and international intelligence. All airports are subject to no notice testing by the TSA office of inspection. For safety purposes local police are notified the morning the test begins. Only after testing starts is local TSA management made aware. After testing is complete agent unveil the tests and discuss result with officers and local official so that training can be improved.

Bomb Detection Canine

Bomb Detection Canine- Questions

How the Dog is trained? What is the dog looking for? What does the dog do when he finds something? How far back does program go? How many airports participate in program? How is program beneficial? What do airports do to participate in the Program?

How is the Dog trained?

Dogs are trained at Lackland Air Force Base near San Antonio, Texas through a method called operant conditioning. Operant conditioning- is a reward based system where the dog is trained to respond to the location of an explosive odor.

What is the Dog looking for?

The dogs are looking for a variety of explosive odors from which the dogs were trained to detect.

What does the dog do when he finds something?

The dogs has a passive response when detecting the odor. Once they identify the strongest concentration of the odor, they respond by sitting at that location.

How far back does program go?

On March 9, 1972, a Trans World Airlines jet bound for Los Angeles took off from JFK International Airport in New York. Moment into the flight, the airline received an anonymous phone call warning that there was a bomb on the flight. The aircraft returned to JFK where passengers were evacuated and a bomb sniffing dog named Brandy was brought aboard to search. Brandy found the explosive device just 12 minutes before it was set to detonate. That same day, then President Nixon directed the Secretary of Transportation to use innovative means to combat the problems plaguing civil aviation. The result was the creation of a federal project- the FAA Explosive Detection Canine Team.

How many airports participate in program?

TSA explosive canine team program started with 40 canine teams at 20 airports in 1973. Prior to the Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations Act of 1997, there were 87 teams located at 27 airports.

What do airports do to participate in the program?

Maintain a minimum of three TSA- certified canine teams for incident response 24/7 Conduct proficiency training weekly Utilize TSA certified canine teams at least 80 % of the time in the airport environment Provide proper kennel facilities Ensure proper veterinary care

Air Marshal

Air Marshal Defined

A professionally trained federal law enforcement agent in charge of securing Americas civil aviation system from criminal and terrorist acts.

History of Air Marshal Program

In the late 1960s hijackings of U.S. flagged commercial air carrier resulted in the creation of a program aimed at halting the increasing threat to passenger safety. In an agreement signed in October 1970 between the Departments of the Treasury and Transportation, the U.S. Customs Service was given the responsibility to establish an enforcement program. The result was the Customs Air Security officers Program, more familiarly know as the sky marshal program. Starting in the late 1970s, 1,784 men and women completed training at the U.S Army base in Virginia.

History Continued
The successful program stopped operation in June 1974 when x-ray screening equipment was introduced in the nations airports In the response to the hijacking of TWA Flight 847 in 1985, President Ronald Regan directed the Secretary of Transportation to explore expansion of the armed sky Marshal program aboard international flights for U.S. air carriers. Congress responded by passing the International Security and Development Cooperation Act, which supported using Federal Air Marshal Service

History Continued
On September 11, 2001, the Air Marshal Program consisted of less than fifty armed Marshals who flew only on international flights flown by U.S carriers. As a result of the attack, President George W. Bush ordered the rapid expansion to the Federal Air Marshal service.

Air Marshal Training

A two phase fifteen week training program First phase- completion of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Centers Basic Police Training Program. Second phase- specific training in which student receive comprehensive instructions in international law, arrest procedures, communications, report writing, aviation medicine, aircraft safety procedure, mission training, defensive measures, and advanced firearms.

On average, Federal Air Marshal

Flies 181 days per year Flies 15 days per month Spends 900 hours in an aircraft per year Spends 5 hours in an aircraft per day

Airport Security: Current Events

Body scanning arrives at KCI

March 11, Boston Logan International (BOS) March 15, Chicago O'Hare International (ORD) March 16, Kansas City International (MCI) 19 more airports also have the technology

Airport Security T-shirt Gaffe

London's Gatwick Airport February 26 Freedom or Die slogan considered threatening Airport apologized because they do not have a policy in place Security officer counseled, but had best intentions

Blackburn Tequila Incident

February 23 Ottawa airport Exceeded the 100ml limit Their claim
He wanted them to hold it for him

His claim
He wanted it destroyed

Result: Be more careful with security personnel


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