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3.

2
Movement of Substances
across the Plasma
Membrane in
Everyday Life
Types of solution
Three types of solution:

3. Hypotonic
4. Hypertonic
5. Isotonic
Hypotonic solution – the concentration
of solute outside a cell is lower than
the concentration of solute inside of the
cell (Hypo – lower)
Hypertonic solution – the concentration
of solute outside the cell is higher than
the concentration of solute inside of the
cell (Hyper – higher)
Isotonic solution – the concentration of
solute outside the cell is equal with the
concentration of solute inside of the
cell (Iso – equal)
Effect of hypotonic,
hypertonic and isotonic
solution on animal cells
Red blood cell is put in a hypotonic solution
– water from the surrounding enters the cell
by osmosis causing it to swell up and burst
(haemolysis – the bursting of red blood cell)
Red blood cell is put in a hypertonic solution
– water from inside the cell move out of the
cell by osmosis causing the cell to shrink
(crenation – the shrinking of the cell)
Red blood cell is put in an isotonic solution –
no change to the cell because the amount of
water entering and leaving the cell is the
same
Summarisation
Effect of hypotonic,
hypertonic and isotonic
solution on plant cells
A plant cell place in a hypotonic solution –
cell swell and become turgid but does not
burst because the cell wall resist the
pressure (turgor pressure) stop the cell from
expanding, the cell wall stretch but does not
break
A plant cell place in a hypertonic solution –
cell shrink and flaccid (plasmolysis – the
shrinking of the cell, opposite process -
deplasmolysis )
A cell place in an isotonic solution – no
change because the amount of water
entering and leaving the cell is equal
Summarisation
The Effects and Application
of Osmosis in Everyday Life
Group discussion
Discuss how osmosis occur in

3. Wilting plant
4. Food preservation
Cells in living organism have to maintain
their osmotic balance so that they will not
burst or crenate (interstitial fluid has the
same concentration as the cytoplasmic fluid)
Wilting plant – happens when too much
fertilizer is added to the soil or water
shortage in soil.
Food preservation – adding salt or sugar to
the preserve food will cause hypertonic
environment to the decomposers and they
will die due to losing water to the surrounding
solution
3.3 Appreciating the
Movement of Substances
across the Plasma
Membrane
Movement of substances across the
plasma membrane is very important
because:
2. To maintain a suitable pH and ionic
concentration inside the cell for enzymatic
activities
3. To obtain food supplies for energy and raw
materials
4. To remove toxic substances or secrete
useful substances
5. To generate ionic gradients essential for
muscular and nervous activities
Test Yourself
1. What happen if an animal cells is put in a
hypotonic solution?
2. Why plant cells does not burst when
these cells is put in a hypertonic
solution?
3. Why is the movement of substances
across the plasma membrane is
important for the survival of living
organisms?
Thing that we’ve learned today:
The meaning of hypotonic, hypertonic and
isotonic solutions.
Effect of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic
solution on animal cells.
Effect of hypotonic, hypertonic and isotonic
solution on plant cells.
The Effects and Application of Osmosis in
Everyday Life
Appreciating the Movement of Substances
across the Plasma Membrane