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Paul Broca (1824-1880): 1878: le grand lobe limbique Refers to a ring of gray matter on the medial aspect of the cerebral hemispheres. James Papez (1883-1958): 1930s: defined a limbic system that might underlie the relationship between emotion and memory (Papez circuit).

Amygdaloid body Hippocampus (seahorse) Cingulate gyus Parahippocampal gyrus Hypothalamus Mamillary bodies Anterior nucleus of thalamus


Emotional brain Emotional and motivational aspects of behavior. Provides emotional component to learning process:
Especially the amygdala.

Associated with memory

Especially the hippocampus.

Associated with pain/pleasure, rage

Large nuclear group in temporal lobe. Afferents:

Olfactory tract Solitary nucleus Parabrachial nucleus Limbic neocortex:

Cingulate gyrus Parahippocampal gyrus

Amygdala Connections
Cerebral cortex Olfactory system Thalamus Brainstem reticular formation Stria terminalis Hypothalamus


Ventral Amygdalofugal fibers

Regions of the Amygdala

Large basolateral region:

Provides direct input to basal ganglia and motor system.

Small corticomedial group of nuclei:

Related to olfactory cortex.

Medial and central nuclei:

Connected to hypothalamus.

Amygdala Inputs
Olfactory System

Corticomedial Nuclear Group Basolateral Nuclear Group Central Nucleus

Temporal Lobe (associated with visual, auditory, tactile senses)

Brainstem (viscerosensory relay Nuclei: solitary nucleus and parbrachial nucleus)

Ventral Amygdalofugal Fibers

Amygdala Outputs
Stria Terminalis

Corticomedial Nuclear Group Basolateral Nuclear Group Central Nucleus

Septal Nuclei Hypothalamus

Dorsal Medial Thalamic Nucleus Nucleus Accumbens Hypothalamus

Nuclei of ANS
Ventral Amygdalofugal Fibers

Ventral Amygdalofugal Fibers

Functions of the Amygdala

Relate environmental stimuli to coordinated behavioral autonomic and endocrine responses seen in speciespreservation. Responses include:
Feeding and drinking Agnostic (fighting) behavior Mating and maternal care Responses to physical or emotional stresses.

Limbic System and Basal Nuclei

Anterior Cingulate Gyrus Orbitofrontal Areas (10, 11)

Medial and lateral temporal lobe Hippocampus Amygdala Entorhinal cortex (24)

Ventral Striatum (nucleus accumbens) Caudate Nucleus (head)

Ventral Pallidum Medial Globus Pallidus Pars Reticularis (Substantia nigra)

Ventral Anterior Nucleus Dorsomedial Nucleus

Papez Circuit (Emotions)

Fornix Mammillary bodies Other hypothalamic nuclei Septal nuclei Substantia innominata (Basal nucleus of Meynert) Hippocampal Formation (hippocampus and dentate gyrus) Mammillothalamic tract


Anterior Thalamic nuclear group

Parahippocampal Gyrus

Cortex of Cingulate Gyrus

Pathologies (lesions)
Voracious appetite Increased (perverse) sexual activity Docility:

Loss of normal fear/anger response

Memory loss:
Damage to hippocampus portion:
Cells undergoing calcium-induced changes associated with memory

Kluver-Bucy Syndrome:
Results from bilateral destruction of amygdala. Characteristics:
Increase in sexual activity. Compulsive tendency to place objects in mouth. Decreased emotionality. Changes in eating behavior. Visual agnosia.