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FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

JSB354 ARCHITECTURAL SCIENCE IV BSc. Of Architecture

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

Topics:

INTRODUCTION PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


1.0 INTRODUCTION
Aims of Fire Protections: To protect building occupants from fire by providing sufficient and safe evacuation routes. To protect building structures from severely damage within specific time construction methods, fire rated etc. To protect building properties (furniture, equipment etc) from totally damage. To avoid fire from spread out within the building or to another building.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


1.0 INTRODUCTION
Fire Hazards & Risks: Smoke: Oxygen decreased carbon monoxide increased cause of death. Smoke: Reduce visibility expose to danger. Radiant Heat 149 degree Celsius cause of death & severe burnt. Fire grow very fast especially to combustible materials.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


1.0 INTRODUCTION
Good Building Design with Fire Safety Measures:
Provide adequate fire appliances access & fire hydrants to assist fire & rescue personnel.
Designing adequate and safe escape routes for the occupants of the building.

Selecting materials for the construction which will not promote the rapid spread of fire.
Subdividing buildings into compartments of reasonable sizes by means of fire resisting walls & floors.

Designing & constructing the exterior of a building so that fire is unlikely to spread to it from another building.
Provide adequate fixed installation for quick & effective detection & extinguishment of fires.

Designing & installing building services so that they do not assist the spread of fire.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


1.0 INTRODUCTION
Classification of Hazardous Areas: Extra light hazard small residential (bungalows, semi-detached houses & terrace houses) Ordinary light hazard other residential (apartments), hotels, hostels & offices.

Ordinary medium hazard public buildings (museums, libraries, shopping complexes, etc.)
Ordinary high hazard places of assembly (halls, auditoriums, cinemas, stadiums etc.) Ordinary special hazard workshops, factories, stores etc. Extra high hazard explosive materials such as electrical plants, fire crackers factories, oil offshores, sub-stations etc.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


1.0 INTRODUCTION
Purpose Group 5th Schedule of UBBL1984: Group I Group II Group III Group IV Group V Group VI Group VII Group VIII - Small Residential - Institutional - Other Residential - Office - Shop - Factory - Place of Assembly - Storage & General

Most of the building will have more than one purpose group. E.g. Shopping Complex will have Group V (Shop), IV (Administration), Group VII (Cineplex) & VIII (Storage).

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS
Descriptions: Passive fire protection is basically a planning matter and must be considered at the planning stage in the building design in terms of mitigation of fire hazard and fire risk. Effective passive fire precautions represent good planning, good design & sound construction, which could complement other basic functions of a building.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Design Notes: All building more than 7000 cubic meter shall attach to access road or open area (Minimum width 12m).

Road/Access width minimum 6m (Maximum width of appliance is 2.5m) & can withstand load of fire engines (Maximum weight 26 tonnes) Maximum gradient to access is 1:12.
Minimum overhead clearance for access is 4m height. Fire appliances turn-around requirements: Tturn, Shunt or Circle

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Perimeter Access: The table in By-law 140 stipulates the proportion of the building perimeter that must be accessible to fire appliances.
Volume of Building (cubic meter) Minimum perimeter appliance access

7000 28000

One sixth

28000 56000

One fourth

56000 84000

One half

84000 112000

Three fourth

112000 and above

Island site

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Perimeter Access:

One sixth perimeter appliance access

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Perimeter Access:

One fourth perimeter appliance access

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Perimeter Access:

One half perimeter appliance access

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Perimeter Access:

Three fourth perimeter appliance access

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Perimeter Access:

Island site perimeter appliance access

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Site & Space Planning:
Separation of Fire Risk Areas: By-law 139 stipulates all fire risk areas (such as TNB sub-station, switch rooms, AC plant rooms etc) shall be separated from occupants:

Totally separate the fire risk area from the building.


Separated by constructing fire rated walls, floors & doors (compartments)

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
Definitions: The spaces in the building are divided into smaller compartments for Fire Safety management reasons to:

Limit the spread of fire;


Restrict the movement of smoke; Optimize evacuation routes during fire; Accommodate different activities (Purpose Group) to enable each compartment have their own fire protection systems.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
5th Schedule of UBBL1984:
Purpose Group Building height Limit of Dimensions Area of compartment floor (meter square) Volume of the building or compartment (cubic meter)

Part I Building other than single storey

The limits of dimensions for areas or volumes in buildings & compartments which are installed with automatic sprinklers are allowed to double up the limit of dimensions stated in Fifth Schedule. This provision is to reflect the reduced risks in sprinklered building.

Institutional

Any height

2000

No limit

Other residential
Other residential Shop Factory Factory Store & general

Not exceeding 28m

3000

8500

Exceeding 28m

2000

5500

Any height Not exceeding 28m Exceeding 28m Not exceeding 28m

2000 No limit 2000 No limit

7000 28000 5500 21000

Store & general

Exceeding 28m

1000

No limit

Part II Single storey building

Institutional Other residential

Any height Any height

3000 3000

No limit No limit

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
Case Study Shop Compartments:
The size of op shop compartments shall not exceed: 7000 cubic meters & 2000 square meters floor areas for unsprinklered buildings. 14,000 cubic meters & 4000 square meters floor areas for fully sprinklered buildings. Where the floor area of building with fully sprinkler installation is subdivided, there shall be no restriction on the total area, provided: 1. More than 60% of the total area shall consist of separate shop not exceeding 280 square meters. 2. Shop units shall be enclosed on three sides by compartment walls except corner shop facing to the main mall.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
Case Study Shop Compartments:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
Compartment Walls & Floors: By-law 136: Provisions of Compartment walls & floors Any building (other than single storey) of a purpose group specified in the Fifth Schedule shall be provided by compartment walls & floors. By-law 137: Floor in Building exceeding 30 metres In any building which exceeds 30 metres in height, all floors which are more than 9 metre above ground level shall be constructed with Compartment Floor, except mezzanine floor

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
Compartment Walls & Floors: By-law 138: Other Compartment Walls & Floors The following walls & floors shall be constructed as compartment walls & floors: Any floor in building of Purpose Group II; Any wall or floor separating a flat from any part of the same building; Any wall or floor separating part of the Building from any part of the same building which is used for a different purpose group (Mixed-Development); Any basement floor exceeding 100 square metres.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
By-law 141 - Separating Walls: By-law 86 stipulates party walls in the fire safety context refer to walls that separate units of different ownership as in walls separating terrace houses, flats etc. Party walls serve to prevent the spread of fire from one area to another. The technical data of party walls: Walls shall be of solid masonry or concrete; Wall thickness is 200mm; Party walls must be raised 230mm above the upper roof surface; No openings shall be made unless compliance with requirements stipulates in By-law 141.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
By-law 141 - Separating Walls:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
By-law 149 Horizontal & Vertical Barriers: Openings in external wall shall be protected by flame barriers by extending 750mm horizontally & 900mm vertically. These walls are known as deflector wall. Deflector walls are inserted to prevent flame spread via the external faade to the floors above

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
By-law 149 Horizontal & Vertical Barriers: Care has to be taken in curtain-wall detailing to prevent the external skin of the building from becoming the casing to a smoke stack.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
By-law 150 Protected Shaft:
Protected shafts penetrate across compartment floors & walls. There two type of shafts: Shafts carrying utilities such as water, electrical etc. All pipes or ducting shall be effectively fire stopped as specified in By-law 161. Service shafts carrying lifts & escape staircases. Lift shaft shall be ventilated with minimum vents of not less than 0.9 square metres per lift (By-law 151). Enclosed lift lobbies & staircase shall be ventilated to provide safe passage for both escaping occupants & safe access for fire fighters. If the protected shafts contain a ventilating duct, the ducts shall be fitted with automatic fire dampers as stipulated in By-law 156 & 160.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Compartments:
By-law 162 Fire Door:
Fire doors of the appropriate Fire Resistance Period (FRP) shall be provided to: Openings in compartment & separating walls, such as hotel guest rooms, AHU rooms etc. Openings in protecting structures, such as protected staircases, protected lobbies, fire fighting access lobbies etc. Openings in partitions enclosing a protected corridor or lobby. By-law 163 stipulates sizes, materials and FRP of Fire Doors. By-law 164 stipulates all fire doors shall be fitted with automatic door closers. The door shall be opened toward the exit route.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Means of Escape:
An escape route should lead to a safety place without reliance on external assistance. The ultimate safety place is the open air outside the building, clear from the effect of fire.

In large complexes, it should be possible to reach a place of reasonable safety such as protected staircase/corridor where people can travel in relative safely to a final exit.
The design of means of escapes should take into account: The building form The activities inside the building. The likelihood of fire. The potential of fire spread through the building.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Principles of Escape:
Alternative means of escape to be made possible for every building. Single staircase & dead ends are allowed under certain conditions. Means of escape to direct a shortest route to a safety place, e.g. to the outside of the buildings or to the protected areas leading to the outside of the buildings. Generally means of escape consists of two parts: Unprotected areas, leading direct to exit. Protected areas, leading direct to exit.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Maximum Travel Distance 7th Schedule:
Limits when alternative exits are available

Purpose Group Small Residential Institutional Hospital School Open plan Flexible plan Other residential Hotels Flats Dormitories Office Shop Factory General & Special Purpose High Hazard Open structures Place of Assembly Store & general Low & Ordinary Hazard High Hazard Parking Garage Aircraft Hangars (Ground Floor) Aircraft Hangars (Mezzanine)

Dead end limit (m) NA 9 6 NA NA 10 10 0 15 15 15 0 NA NA NA NA 15 NA NA

Unsprinklere d (m) NA 30 45 30 45 30 30 30 45 30 30 22 NA 45 NA 22.5 30 30 22.5

Sprinklered (m) NA 45 60 45 60 45 45 45 60 45 45 22.5 NA 61 NA 30 45 45 22.5

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Measurement Travel Distance:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Measurement Travel Distance:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Measurement Travel Distance:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Measurement Travel Distance:

In the open areas, the distance shall not exceed two-thirds the permitted travel distance. In the rooms less than six persons, the travel distance shall be measured from the doors of such rooms, provided the travel distance from any point in the room to the room door does not exceed 15 metres.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Measurement Travel Distance:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Exits:
By-law 166 stipulates not less than two separate exits shall be provided and the exits are readily accessible at all times. By-law 169 stipulates no exit route may reduce in width along its path of travel.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Storey exits & Horizontal exits:
By-law 167 stipulates every compartment shall be provided with at least two storey exits. The distance in between two exits shall not less than 4.5 metres

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Storey exits & Horizontal exits:
By-law 174 stipulates arrangement of storey exit shall give direct access to: A final exit. A protected staircase leading to a final exit. An external route leading to a final exit. Separate exit for basement floors.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Storey exits & Horizontal exits:
By-law 170 stipulates egress through unenclosed openings. By-law 171 stipulates where appropriate, horizontal exits may be provided in lieu of other exits. By-law 172 stipulates every exit shall be installed with emergency exit sign (KELUAR sign).

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Exit Staircases: By-law 168 stipulates every upper floor shall have at least two separate exit staircase. The distance in between two exit staircases shall not less than 5 metres

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Exit Staircases:
The followings information on staircase must be shown on drawings submitted to Fire Safety Department: Number of treads & risers which shall not exceed 16 in a single flight unless internal stairs for individual residential unit; Dimension of treads & risers - treads shall not be less than 255mm & risers shall not be more than 180mm; Width of staircases shall be calculated in accordance with By-law 168; Depth of landing shall not be less than the width of the staircase; Minimum headroom is not less than 2 metre measured vertically from any point over the full width of the stairs; Winders are not permitted in fire escape staircases.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Exit Staircases:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Exit Staircases:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Exit Staircases:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Exit Staircases: If the width of staircase is more than 1200mm, handrails shall be provided on both sides. If the width of staircase is exceeding 2225mm, intermediate handrails shall be provided.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
External Staircases:
By-law 190 stipulates any permanent external staircase is acceptable as an exit staircase. Bylaw 191 stipulates no openings shall be permitted to any external staircase within a distance of 2 metre horizontally & 9 metre vertically, except for toilets.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Building with Single Staircase:
By-law 194 stipulates a single staircase may be permitted for any building the top most floor does not exceed 12 metres height, provided: Each element of structure shall have a FRP not less than one hour. Rooms or storeys of the building are used for domestic or office purposes, except for ground floor can be used for shop or car park, provided: The staircase from ground floor to first floor level shall be separated from remainder ground floor by two hours FRP wall; The wall enclosing the staircase at the main entrance (ground floor) shall not be less than 450mm. The maximum travel distance shall be 12 metres measured from the door of the room to exit door, or from any point to the room door.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Building with Single Staircase:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Escape Routes:
Building exceeding 30m height:

By-law 195 stipulates in buildings exceeding 30 metres in height, all exit staircases shall be carried to the roof level.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Smoke & Protected Lobbies:
Smoke Lobbies:

By-law 196 stipulates: Access to staircase smoke lobby shall be by means of fire doors.

The width of smoke lobby shall be more than exit width.


Smoke lobby shall be provided for exit staircase extended to basement. Smoke lobby shall be naturally ventilated (minimum 1 square metre opening) or mechanically pressurized.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Smoke & Protected Lobbies:
Smoke Lobbies:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Smoke & Protected Lobbies:
Smoke Lobbies:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Smoke & Protected Lobbies:
Protected Lobbies:

By-law 197 stipulates: Protected lobbies shall be provided to serve staircase in buildings exceeding 18 metre above ground, where the staircase enclosures are not naturally ventilated. In buildings exceeding 45 metre above ground, the protected lobbies shall be pressurized. Protected lobbies may be omitted if the staircase enclosure is pressurized.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Smoke & Protected Lobbies:
Protected Lobbies:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Ventilation to Staircase Enclosure:
By-law 198 stipulates: All staircase enclosures shall be ventilated by having a minimum opening size of 1 square metre. In buildings not exceeding three storeys above ground, staircase enclosures may be unventilated provided that access to them at all levels through ventilated lobbies. By -law 199 stipulates: In buildings not exceeding 18 metre, staircase enclosure may be unventilated provided that access to them at all levels through ventilated lobbies & staircase enclosures are permanently ventilated at the top with minimum 5% of the area of enclosure.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Ventilation to Staircase Enclosure:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Ventilation to Staircase Enclosure:
By-law 200 stipulates, for staircases enclosure exceeding 18 metre & not ventilated, two methods can be provided: Permanent ventilation at the top with minimum 5% of the area of enclosure and plus a mechanical ventilated shaft to achieved 10 air changes per hour. Mechanical pressurization of staircase enclosures By-law 201 stipulates all staircase enclosures below ground shall be provided with suitable means of preventing the ingress of smoke. By-law 202 stipulates all staircases serving building 45.75 metres in height shall be provided with pressurized system.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Building Materials & Construction:
By-laws 203 224 stipulate classification of building materials & constructional methods to restrict the spread of fire: Classification of interior finishes Classification of wall surface & ceiling Construction of roofs & roofing materials Fire resistance of structural members Fire resistance for walls & floors

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly:
By-laws 178 188 stipulate provisions of passive fire precautions for place of assembly. Place of assembly is classified according to its capacity as follows: Class A capacity 1000 persons or more Class B capacity 300 to 1000 persons Class C capacity 100 to 300 persons

Exit details for places of assembly:


Class A at least four separate exits Class B at least two separate exits & if a capacity over 600 at least three separate exits Class C at least two means of exit.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly:
Seating details: The spacing rows of seats from back to back shall be not less than 825mm, & not less than 625mm plus the sum of the thickness of the back & it inclination. Minimum spacing between back of one seat & the front of the seat is 300mm. Maximum rows of seats between gangways are 14 seats. Maximum rows of seats opening on to gangway at one end are 7 seats. Dimension for seats without dividing arms are 450mm.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly:
Seating details: The spacing rows of seats from back to back shall be not less than 825mm, & not less than 625mm plus the sum of the thickness of the back & it inclination. Minimum spacing between back of one seat & the front of the seat is 300mm.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly:
Seating details: Maximum rows of seats between gangways are 14 seats. Maximum rows of seats opening on to gangway at one end are 7 seats. Dimension for seats without dividing arms are 450mm.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly: Continental seating:
450mm clearance width between rows of 18 seats or less. 500mm clearance width between rows of 35 seats or less. 525mm clearance width between rows of 45 seats or less. 550mm clearance width between rows of 46 seats or less. When the number of seats increased to 49, 1 pair of exit doors shall be provided for each 5 rows of seats. Minimum width of exit shall not be less than 1680mm.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly: Continental seating:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly:
Gangways: Minimum width of gangway is 1200mm shall be provided around the stall & balcony. If the gangway in the balcony lead to the exit doors not less than 1200mm, the rear gangway may be omitted.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Places of Assembly:
Gangways: 1200mm width gangway in between the rows of seating shall be provided as required by local authority.

Handrail shall be provided if the step of a pitch exceeding 30 degrees or ramp gradient exceeding 1:10. 1050mm height guardrail shall be provided where the inclined exceeding 15 degrees.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Escape Provision Computation:
Reference is made to the following By-laws: By-law 175 Calculation of Occupancy Loads By-law 176 Computing Storey Exit Width By-law 177 Computing Number of Staircases & Staircase Width Seventh Schedule of UBBL 1984

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Escape Provision Computation:
Case study 1:
Shopping Market at ground floor. Floor area = 2000 square metres. 3 nos. of 1500mm exit door & 1 no. of 900mm exit door
Refer to 7th Schedule: Purpose Group : SHOP Occupancy load = Area/OLSMP = 2000/3 = 666.67 persons = Occupancy load/Capacity exit = 667/100 = 6.67 units = Units x 0.55m (550mm) = 6.67 x 0.55 = 3.6685m = Total exit 1 biggest exit = 5.4m 1.5m = 3.9m

Capacity Exit

Exit width required

Exit width provided

Exit width provided > Exit width required 3.9m > 3.6685m

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Escape Provision Computation:
Case study 2:
Restaurant at ground floor. Floor area = 300 square metres. 2 nos. of 900mm exit door.
Refer to 7th Schedule: Purpose Group : SHOP Occupancy load = Area/OLSMP = 300/3 = 100 persons = Occupancy load/Capacity exit = 100/100 = 1 units = Units x 0.55m (550mm) = 6.67 x 0.55 = 0.55m (0.7m min. exit width) = Total exit 1 biggest exit = 1,8m 0.9m = 0.9m

Capacity Exi

Exit width required

Exit width provided

Exit width provided > Exit width required 0.9m > 0.7m

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Escape Provision Computation:
Case study 3:
Office space at sixth floor. Floor area = 1800 square metres. 3 nos. of exit staircase; Staircase width 1300mm each.
Refer to 7th Schedule: Purpose Group : OFFICE Occupancy load = Area/OLSMP = 1800/10 = 180 persons = Occupancy load/Capacity exit = 180/60 = 3 units = Units x 0.55m (550mm) = 3 x 0.55 = 1.65m = Total exit 1 biggest exit = 3.9m 1.3m = 2.6m

Capacity Exit

Exit width required

Exit width provided

Exit width provided > Exit width required 2.6m > 1.65m

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Escape Provision Computation:
Case study 4:
Car parking at basement floor. No. of car parks = 200 4 nos. of exit staircase; Staircase width 1300mm each.
Refer to 7th Schedule: Purpose Group : not stated Occupancy load = no. of CP x 2 = 200 x 2 = 400 persons = Occupancy load/Capacity exit = 400/60 = 6.6667 units = Units x 0.55m (550mm) = 6.6667 x 0.55 = 3.6667m = Total exit 1 biggest exit = 5.2m 1.3m = 3.9m

Capacity Exit

Exit width required

Exit width provided

Exit width provided > Exit width required 3.9m > 3.6667m

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Escape Provision Computation:
Case study 5:
Auditorium at ground floor. No. of seats = 600 2 nos. of 3400mm exit door.

NOT APPROVED. BASE ON BY-LAW 179, IT SHALL BE THREE SEPARATE EXITS FOR THE CAPACITY OF 600 PERSONS (CLASS B)

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


2.0 PASSIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Escape Provision Computation:
Case study 5:
Auditorium at ground floor. No. of seats = 600 3 nos. of 1800mm exit door.
Refer to 7th Schedule: Purpose Group : Place of Assembly Occupancy load Capacity Exit = 600 persons = Occupancy load/Capacity exit = 600/100 = 6units = Units x 0.55m (550mm) = 6 x 0.55 = 3.3m = Total exit 1 biggest exit = 5.4m 1.8m = 3.6m

Exit width required

Exit width provided

Exit width provided > Exit width required 3.6m > 3.3m

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS
Descriptions: Active fire protection is basically the manual or automatic fire protection systems such as; fire alarms, detectors, rising mains, hose reels, sprinklers etc, to give a warning of an outbreak of fire & the containment & extinguishment of fire. The provisions of adequate & suitable facilities to assist rescue & fire suppression operations are also within the active fire defence strategies.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Concept & Types of Protection: Fire detection & alarm systems are designed to provide warning of the outbreak of fire & allow appropriate fire fighting action to be taken. The fire detection & alarm systems must be specially designed to meet the requirements of each building. Type of protections is: Manual a system which provides manual alarm only. Automatic a system that automatically detects a fire & initiates an effective alarm, and activation of active fire suppression systems.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Detection & Alarm Systems in UBBL1984:
By-law 153 Smoke detector shall be installed at lift lobbies. By-law 225(1) Every building shall be provided with detecting & fire alarm systems together with illuminated exit signs. By-law 237(1) Fire alarms shall be provided in accordance with the Tenth Schedule. By-law 237(2) All buildings exceeding 9290 square metres or 30.5m height shall be provided with two-stage alarm system. Continuous signal to be given in the affected section & intermittent signal be given in adjoining section.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Detection & Alarm Systems in UBBL1984:
By-law 238 Large buildings or exceeding 30.5m height shall be provided with Command & Control Centre. By-law 239 Two separate voice communication systems shall be provided in lifts, lift lobbies, corridors, staircases, office area (if exceeding 92.9 square metres) & hotel guest room. By-law 241 Special requirements alarm systems for deaf persons by using visible indicator alarm signals. By-law 244(g) Standard requirements for Fire Alarm Systems.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Detection & Alarm Systems in UBBL1984: Tenth Schedule of UBBL 1984 lists the followings: 1. 2. 3. 4. Automatic Fire Detectors System Manual Electrical Fire Alarm System Signal Indicator Alarm System Manual Alarm System

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Automatic Fire Detection Systems: Heat Detectors: Fixed Temperature Heat Detector Rate-of-Rise Temperature Heat Detector Linear/Line Detector Smoke Detectors: Ionization Smoke Detector Optical Smoke Detector Aspirating Smoke Detector Beam Detector Flame Detectors: Ultra Violet Flame Detector Infra-red Flame Detector

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Manual Electrical Fire Alarm Systems:
Manual Electric Fire Alarm Systems shall be operated from break-glass call points & once operated; the alarm will continue to sound automatically. The system shall be located on exit routes, normally installed together with hose reel. No person in the premises needs to travel more than 30 metres. The system shall be mounted at a height of 1.4m from the floor, easily accessible & well illuminated.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Signal Indicator Alarm Systems: The detection device must be arranged to trigger an alarm, either by signalling to the police, fire station or a commercial security organisations central station. A range of services can be provided which include alarm & line-fault signal system.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Voice Communication Systems: A voice alarm system is intended to be used in conjunction with fire detection & alarm system to control the safe evacuation of building occupants.

The system can be used for other functions & incidents.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Fire Detection & Alarm Systems:
Emergency Lightings: Types of Emergency Illumination as listed in Tenth Schedule: Signal point units Central Battery Generators

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Descriptions: Types of extinguishing system to be used are based on classification of fire. The system shall be installed either internal or external part of the buildings. The system operates in three ways: Portable Fixed & manually operated Fixed & automatically operated By-law 225(1) stipulates all building shall be provided with means of extinguishing fire system.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Suppression Systems in the 10th Schedule: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Automatic Sprinklers Water Spray System High Expansion Foam System Carbon Dioxide System Approved Halogenated Extinguishing System Other Automatic Extinguishing System Hose Reel Hydrant System

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Classification of Fire & Suppression System Used:
Class Description: Method: Suppression Agent: Water Dry powder Foam

Fires involving organic nature with the formation of glowing ambers. E.g. wood, paper etc.

Water to extinguish the fire & as a cooling element.

Fires involving liquids or liquefiable solids. E.g. petrol, kerosene, etc. Fires involving gases. E.g. oxygen, LNG, LPG etc. Fires involving metals. E.g. sodium, aluminium etc.

Blanketing to remove oxygen from liquid materials. Blanketing to avoid oxygen from gases. Water is not suitable because steel will collapse.

Dry powder Foam CO2 Dry powder CO2 Dry powder Dry sand

Fires involving electrical equipment

Water is not suitable due to short circuit.

Dry powder CO2 Halon Dry powder

Fires involving fats & cooking oils

CO2 is not suitable.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
External Fire Hydrants: By-law 225(2) stipulates every building shall be served at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5m.

By-law 225(3) stipulates additional fire hydrant shall be provided depending on the size & location of the building.
The fire hydrant shall be located at fire appliances access. Types of fire hydrant: 2 outlets pressure at 250 to 300 GPM (gallon per minute) 3 outlets pressure at 300 to 600 GPM

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
External Fire Hydrants:
Water supply for fire hydrant: Direct supply from main distribution pipe. Supplied through water tank (Pressurised Hydrant System)

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Portable Fire Extinguishers: By-law 227 stipulates portable fire extinguishers shall be provided in the building: In accordance with Code of practice; Shall be located in prominent positions on exit routes; Visible from all direction; By-law 244 (c) stipulates standard requirement for portable extinguishers.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Portable Fire Extinguishers:
Types of portable fire extinguisher: Water (Colour code: Red) suitable for Class A sprayed at 6 to 8m in 60 to 120 second. Foam (Colour code: Cream) suitable for Class A & B sprayed at 6m in 30 to 90 second. CO2 (Colour code: Black) suitable for Class B, C & E 2.2kg gas. Halon (Colour code: Green) suitable for Class E. Dry Powder (Colour Code: Blue) suitable for all types of fire 9 to 12kg & sprayed at 5 to 6m in less than 2 minutes.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Hose Reel System:
Hose reel system is intended for occupant to use during the early stages of fire. The system comprises hose reel pump, water storage tank, hose reels, pipe works & valves. When the tank is located on the roof, the hose reels may be fed directly from hose reel tank by gravity. The requirement for hose reel systems is listed under the Tenth Schedule of UBBL 1984. By-law 244 (b) stipulates standard requirement for Hose reels. The hose reel shall be located: At every 45 metres (depends on building form); At every floor level; Nearer to fire fighting access lobbies.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Hose Reel System:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Downcomer System:
Downcomers are a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use & always charged with water from a water tank located at the roof level. Downcomers are only permitted for private residential buildings with open balcony approach where the topmost floor is less than 60 metres (Low cost flat only).

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Dry Riser System:
By-law 230 stipulates Dry Riser System shall be provided in building in which the topmost floor in between 18.3m to 30.5m. By-law 232 stipulates at least one Dry Riser System shall be installed when the building under construction has reached 18.3m.

By-law 244 (d) stipulates standard requirement for dry rising main.
Dry risers are a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use during the outbreak of fire. Dry risers are normally dry & depend on the fire engines to pump water into the system.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Dry Riser System:
Dry riser comprises of: Riser pipe with landing valve at every floor; Breeching inlet at the ground floor.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Wet Riser System: By-law 231 stipulates Wet Riser System shall be provided in building in which the topmost floor is more than 30.5m. By-law 232 stipulates at least one Wet Riser System shall be installed when the building under construction has reached more than 30.5m. By-law 244 (d) stipulates standard requirement for wet rising main. Wet risers are a form of internal hydrant for the firemen to use & are always charged with water.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Wet Riser System:
Wet riser comprises of: Riser pipe at 150mm dia. with landing valve at every floor; Pumping system (jockey, duty & standby pumps); Wet riser water tank

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Automatic Sprinkler System:
By-law 226 stipulates automatic system (including sprinklers) shall be provided for hazardous occupancy. By-law 228 stipulates sprinkler valves shall be located in safe & enclosed position on the exterior wall. All sprinkler systems shall be connected to the nearest fire station to provide immediate & automatic alarm system when activated. By-law 244 (f) stipulates standard requirement for automatic sprinklers. The detail requirement for automatic sprinkler systems is listed under the Tenth Schedule of UBBL 1984.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Automatic Sprinkler System:
An automatic sprinkler system is intended to detect, control & extinguish a fire, and to warn the occupants of the occurrence of fire. The system operates automatically without human intervention. The sprinkler head has a liquid filled glass bulb that breaks due to the heat of the fire & releases water that sprays over the fire. The most common type of automatic sprinkler system is the wet pipe installation.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Automatic Sprinkler System:
An automatic sprinkler system comprises of: Pipe works & valve; Pumping system (jockey, duty & standby pumps); Sprinkler water tank; Control valve set; Sprinkler heads; Flow & Pressure switches.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Automatic Sprinkler System:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Automatic Sprinkler System:
Sprayed area depending on category of hazard: Light hazard 130 to 225 square feet Ordinary hazard 100 to 130 square feet High hazard 90 square feet Sprayed pattern: Conventional down sprayed & partly at ceiling Hemispherical spray down sprayed only Side wall spray Double spay for ceiling depth more than 1200mm

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Special Extinguishment Systems:
By-law 236 stipulates special extinguishment systems shall be provided for special hazard areas. Automatic CO2 Extinguishing System: CO2 system consists of CO2 cylinders, steel piping, discharge nozzles, heat and/or smoke detectors & control panel. The system activates both visual & audio alarm system before releasing the gas. The CO2 is discharged after a time delay upon detection of fire to warn any occupant to evacuate the room. The system is usually provided for: Transformer rooms Switch rooms Standby generator rooms

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Special Extinguishment Systems:
Automatic CO2 Extinguishing System:

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Special Extinguishment Systems: Foam Inlet:

By-law 233 stipulates boiler rooms & storage areas below ground level shall be equipped with foam inlets.
By-law 234 stipulates underground structures & windowless buildings shall be provided with foam inlets. By-law 244(e) stipulates standard requirement for foam inlets.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Suppression Systems:
Special Extinguishment Systems: Halogenated System: Halogenated system consists of halon gas cylinders, steel piping, discharge nozzles, heat and/or smoke detectors & control panel. The detail requirement for automatic Halogenated systems is listed under the Tenth Schedule of UBBL 1984.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Other By-laws:
Fire fighting Access Lobbies:
By-law 242 stipulates fire fighting access lobbies shall be provided with the following requirements: Minimum area of the lobby is 5.57 square metres; Minimum permanent ventilation is 25% from the area of the lobby; If ventilation through openable windows, additional permanent ventilations of 464 square centimetres shall be provided; However, mechanical pressurisation may be provided as an alternative. By-law 229 stipulates fire fighting access lobbies shall be provided at every floor & located not more than 45.75m from the furthermost point of the floor.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Other By-laws:
Firemen Lifts:
By-law 243 stipulates fire lift/s shall be provided for a building is more than 18.5m (topmost occupied floor). A penthouse occupying less than 50% of the floor area immediately below shall be exempted from this regulation. A fire lift shall be located within a separate protected shaft if it opens into a protected lobby. The location shall not more than 61m travel distance from the furthermost point of the floor. Fire lifts shall be provided as the rate of one lift in every group of lifts which discharged into same protected lobby. Fire lifts shall serve all floors including basement & topmost occupied floor.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Other By-laws:
Smoke Vents: By-laws 249 to 252 stipulate he requirements of smoke control ventilation systems. The smoke vent system shall be provided for windowless buildings, underground structures & large area factories. Natural draught smoke venting shall utilise roof vents or vents in walls at ceiling level. The vents either in open position or open automatically.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Other By-laws:
Emergency Power System:
Emergency power system shall be provided as accordance to By-law 253 of the UBBL1984. The system is to supply electrical power automatically in the event of power failure to equipment essential for safety of life. The supply systems shall comprise one or more of the following types: Storage battery for a period of 1 hours. Generator set for automatically starting the prime mover on failure of normal service. Normally it is located on ground or basement floor

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Other By-laws:
Emergency Power System:
The emergency power systems shall provide power for the following emergency loads that are associated with fire protection systems: Pressurisation systems; Smoke control systems; Fire alarm & monitoring systems; Pumping systems for fire fighting; Emergency public address systems; Fire lifts; Emergency lighting; Other emergency fire protection systems.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Building less than 18.3m height: Refer to the Tenth Schedule of UBBL 1984 to determine Purpose Group of the building. By-law 225 Detecting & extinguishing fire By-law 226 Automatic systems are required for high hazard space By-law 227 Portable extinguishers By-law 237 Fire alarms By-law 239 Voice communication system By-law 240 Electrical isolation switch By-law 241 Special requirements for fire alarm By-law 253 Emergency power system

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Building in between 18.3m 30.5m height:
Refer to the Tenth Schedule of UBBL 1984 to determine Purpose Group of the building. By-law 225 Detecting & extinguishing fire By-law 226 Automatic systems are required for high hazard space By-law 227 Portable extinguishers By-law 229 Means of access & fire fighting By-law 230 Dry rising system By-law 232 Dry rising for building under construction By-law 237 Fire alarms By-law 239 Voice communication system By-law 240 Electrical isolation switch By-law 241 Special requirements for fire alarm By-law 242 Fire fighting access lobbies By-law 243 Fire lifts By-law 253 Emergency power system

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS


3.0 ACTIVE FIRE REQUIREMENTS Special Studies:
Building more than 30.5m height:
Refer to the Tenth Schedule of UBBL 1984 to determine Purpose Group of the building. By-law 225 Detecting & extinguishing fire By-law 226 Automatic systems are required for high hazard space By-law 227 Portable extinguishers By-law 229 Means of access & fire fighting By-law 231 Wet rising system By-law 232 Wet rising for building under construction By-law 237 Fire alarms By-law 238 Command & control centre By-law 239 Voice communication system By-law 240 Electrical isolation switch By-law 241 Special requirements for fire alarm By-law 242 Fire fighting access lobbies By-law 243 Fire lifts By-law 253 Emergency power system

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JSB354 ARCHITECTURAL SCIENCE IV BSc. Of Architecture