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WELCOME TO

THE PRESENTATION ON

STEAM TURBINE
PROTECTIONS AND
GOVERNING
SYSTEMS
AT

ESCI, HYDERABAD
BY

BHEL PS SR, CHENNAI


8-9 Dec,

CONTROLS OF LARGE
UTILITY TURBINES
Presentation By

Srinivasan Selvaraj

Main Control Systems

Electro-Hydraulic Governing System (EHTC


Turbine Stress Evaluator (TSE)
LP Bypass Control System (LPBP)
Gland Steam Control System (GSC)
Protection System
Turbovisory System (TSI)
Automatic Turbine Tester (ATT)

Electro-Hydraulic
Governing System (EHTC)

EHTC: Advantages

Safe Operation of Turbine in


conjunction with Turbine Stress
Evaluator (TSC)
Excellent Operation Reliability and
Dependability
Low transient and steady state
speed deviations

EHTC: Advantages

Dependable control during load


rejection
Reliable Operation in case of
Isolated Grid

Critical Measuring Devices

Speed Probes (3 Nos.) and


associated circuit elements
Load Transducers (3 Nos.)
Electro-hydraulic Converter housed
in Governing Rack (1 No.)
Position Feedback Transmitter of
EHC

Control Loops
Speed Control
Load Control
Pressure Control

Speed Control: Main


Functions

PD Controller
Start Up & Shut Down of Turbine
Synchronizing with grid
Providing Min. Load
Operation of Turbine over entire
range of Load in case of Load
Controller Failure

Load Control: Main


Functions
PI Controller
Provision of load reference
limiter
Frequency influence option

Pressure Control:Main
Functions
PI Controller
Initial pressure control
Limit pressure control

_
Nr

Nrtd

+
Nact

Pr

Prtd

+
+

Pmax
+

Prsu
m

SPEED
CONT. PD
M
I
N

_
+

LOAD
CONT. PI

M
A
X

M
I
N

M
I
N

EL
HYD

Pact
Fact

_
+
Fref

pREF

_
+

PRESSURE
CONT. PI

pACT
0
P
LIMIT
PRES.
INIT. PRES.

Governing Scheme for


KWU Turbines

FROM ELEC
CONTROLLER
EL
HYD
STARTING
DEVICE

MIN
M
I
N

TO CONTROL
VALVES

HYD
HYD

SPEEDER
GEAR

Governing Scheme for


KWU Turbines

Additional Functions
Tracking device option
Load shedding relay
Auto Synchronizer
Isolated grid operation

Tracking Device Functions


The starting device keeps varying
automatically with variation in the
position of EHC. In case the EHC
fails the starting device will
restrict the raise in the load.

Load Shedding Relay


Functions
During sudden load throwoff
conditions, there will tendency for
the speed to raise rapidly. To avoid
such conditions the LSR gives a
close command for closure of the
control valves for a brief moment.
The magnitude of load throw,time
duration of closure of control valves
are settable in the LSR.

Auto synchronizer
Functions
The auto synchronizer accepts Gen and
Grid Potential transformer signals. To
match the frequency and voltage of the
Generator, the auto. Sync. Unit gives
Speed raise/lower command to EHTC and
voltage raise/lower command to AVR.
After parameter matching the auto sync.
Unit generates a command for
Synchronizing the unit

Auto synchronizer
Functions
After parameter matching the auto
sync. Unit generates a command for
Synchronizing the unit

Turbine Stress Evaluator


(TSE)

Turbine Stress Evaluator

Compares thermal stress in the


monitored components with the
permissible limits and generates
margins.
The temperature margin is fed to
the set point controller speed and
load.
Derives start up criteria for ATRS

TSE: Components
Monitored

Emergency stop valve.


HP control valve.
HP casing.
HP shaft.
IP shaft.

TSE: Measuring Points

Surface and mid wall temperatures of


ESV (Ti & Tm)
Surface and mid wall temperatures of
HPCV
Surface and mid wall temperatures of
HP casing.
Derived value for HP and IP shaft
temperatures from specified locations
in respective casings.

TSE: Operating Modes

Three modes viz., fast, normal,


slow available.
The increased fatigue rate
associated with fast mode can be
compensated by more slow mode
operation.

TSE: Margins

For any component, the difference Ti


Tm
represents the actual thermal
stresses.
Depending on the value of Tm and
operating mode the permissible
value of thermal stress is
determined.
From the difference between the
permissible stress and prevailing

TSE: Margins

The margins of different


components are provided in the Bar
graph form in the TSE monitor.
The reference variable derived from
the minimum margin acts directly
on the turbine control system.

LP Bypass Control System


(LPBP)

LPBP system: Main


Features
Enables alternative path for
dumping steam from RH outlet to
condenser bypassing IP and LP
turbine.
Maintains RH pressure from a
criteria representing the HP turbine
flow.
Works in conjunction with HP
bypass systems and when
necessitated by the system.

LPBP system: Main


Features
Provides fixed and variable set
point.
Protects the condenser by water
injection.
Hydraulically protects the system
when the water injection press. is v
low or condenser press. is v high

LPBP system: Pressure


control
Process variable for control loop is
acquired from Press. Transmitter in
RH line.
Two set values viz. Fixed set point
and variable set points are formed
and maximum value is used as
reference.

LPBP system: Pressure


control
Fixed set point is varied with push
button in the control desk.
Variable set point is derived from I
stage pressure of HP turbine which
is an indicative parameter of steam
flow.
Manual operation of valves is
possible with push buttons in the
control desk.

I stg.
press
PT

f(x)
Fixed
setpoint

M
A
X

PI
Cont.
+
From EHC LVDT
-

PT

Valve
Lift PID

To EHC

RH press

LPBP Scheme for KWU turbines

Gland Steam Control


System (GSC)

Gland Steam Pressure


Control

Maintains the Gland steam header


pressure at required value.
Provided with two control valves
viz. seal steam control valve and
gland steam control valve.
Process variable is the header
pressure from a transmitter.

Gland Steam Pressure


Control

The electro-hydraulic actuator


have inbuilt pump and it is
powered by separate power
supply.
In the event of pump failure,the
valve remains stay put.

Seal steam valve


+

Set
point.

PI
Cont.

f(x)

EHC

PT
Leak steam valve

GS header
press

100

f(x)

Leak steam valve


Seal steam valve

Command
To
Valve

EHC

Cont.output

100

GSPC Scheme for KWU turbines

Protection Systems

Protection Systems

Electrical Protection Systems

Hydraulic Protection Systems

Electrical Protection
Systems

Emergency PB (UCB)
Lub Oil Pressure Very Low (2 out of
3)
Fire Protection Trip
Turbine Trip from ATRS
Axial Shift Very High (2 out of 3)
Over-speed Trip
MFT Relay Acted from Boiler (2 out of
3)

Electrical Protection
Systems

Generator Protection Trip


Vacuum Low Trip
HP Exhaust Temperature Very High(2 out
of 3)
Generator Cold Gas Temperature Very
High
Exciter Hot Air Temperature Very High
Liquid Level in Generator Bushing Very
High (2 out of 3)

Hydraulic Protection
Systems

Over-speed Trip 1 & 2


Vacuum Low Trip
Axial Shift
Hand Trip Lever 1 & 2

Features of Protection
Systems

Cyclic Test done periodically for


each Trip input
Fault at input level will be
annunciated
Testing can be done online
2 out of 3 logic ensures reliability
and avoid spurious trippings
2 separate Processor Units realize
the Protection Logic with dedicated
IOs.

Features of Protection
Systems

Data of both processors matched


through Serial Communication and
discrepancy annunciated
2 separate Solenoids provided in
Hydraulic System for redundancy
First cause of trip will be
annunciated
Online Testing of Final Tripping
elements through ATT

Resetting of Protection
Turbine Trip Solenoid stays in
energised condition until the
following conditions are fulfilled.
Command from individual Trip
ceases
Both ESVs Closed
Trip Oil Pressure less than 2
kg/sq.cm

Turbovisory System (TSI)

Turbovisory Instruments

Absolute bearing vibration


Absolute shaft vibration
Axial shift
Relative expansion HP
Relative expansion IP
Relative expansion LP
Overall expansion

Automatic Turbine Tester


(ATT)

ATT : Features
Individual testing of each
turbine protective devices.
Pretest ensures substitute
devices.
Monitoring of program steps for
execution within a certain time.
Interruption if trip is initiated.
Automatic reset of program

Automatic Turbine Tester


Sub group Safety Devices.
Sub group HP/IP valves.

ATT: Safety devices


Remote trip device 1 & 2.
Over speed trip device 1 & 2.
Low vacuum trip device.
Thrust bearing trip.

ATT: HP/IP Valves


HP stop & control valve 1
HP stop & control valve 2
IP stop & control valve 1
IP stop & control valve 2

ATT: LOGICS for safety


devices
Release condition for start
All protective device in operating
condition.
1st step command
Checking of Provision of control fluid
for enabling test

ATT: LOGICS for safety


devices
Release condition for 2nd step
Pressure before changeover valve >
5 kg/sq cm.
2nd step command
Takes care of over speed trip-1
during test.

ATT: LOGICS for safety


devices
Release condition for 3rd step
Pressure before changeover valve <
2 kg/sq cm.
Pressure between sol. valve >5 kg/sq
cm.
3rd step command
Takes care of over speed trip-2
during test.

ATT: LOGICS for safety


devices
Release condition for 4th step
Pressure between sol. valve <2
kg/sq cm.
4th step command
Provision of control fluid.

ATT: LOGICS for safety


devices
Release condition for 5th step
Pressure before changeover valve
>5 kg/sq cm.
5th step command
Changeover valve to test position.

ATT: LOGICS for safety


devices
Release condition for 6th step
Trip oil Pressure >5 kg/sq cm.
Changeover valve test position.
Aux startup fluid < 2 kg/sq cm.
6th step command
Testing of remote trip device 1 & 2.

ATT: LOGICS for safety


devices
7th step command
Testing of over speed trip device 1
& 2.
8th step command
Testing of low vacuum trip device
9th step command
Testing of thrust bearing trip device

ATT: LOGICS for valves


Start conditions
All stop valves 100 % position
Load controller in action
Load < 66.6 %
Trip oil pressure > 2 kg

ATT: LOGICS for valves


Step I command
Control valves - HP & IP
Step II command
Stop valves HP & IP

Automatic Turbine
Run-up System
(ATRS)

Automatic Turbine Run-up


System (ATRS)

Acquisition, analysis and collation


of various parameters during
Startup
Sequential Control of Drives
Unit Synchronization and Minimum
Load Operation
Organised and hierarchically
arranged as Sub Group Control
(SGC), Sub-loop Control (SLC), and
Control Interface

ATRS: Functional Group


ATR S
S G C ( O il)

S G C (C o n d & E v a c )

S G C ( T u r b in e )

S L C ( T u r n in g G e a r )

S L C (C E P )

S L C ( D r a in s )

S L C (A O P 1 )

S L C (V a c . P u m p )

W a r m U p C o n t r o lle r

S L C (A O P 2 )

S L C (V a c . B rk r)

S t a r tin g D e v ic e

S L C (E O P )

S e t P o in t D e v ic e
(S p e e d & L o a d )

S L C (J O P )

A u t o s y n c h ro n is e r

THANK YOU !