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General Microbiology

Nickolas V. Kapp Ph.D

How to get a hold of Nick


Office: 738-4415 E-mail: Kapp@smccd.net FAX: 738-4499 Office 7224

Office hours:M,W,F 9 to 11. TTh By Arrangement

The micro class


We will normally have lecture from 9:35 till 10:50. See Course Outline Attendance and promptness will count towards your grade

What if I want to look at my plates at some other times?


Open Lab hours are Mon and Wed 9 to 12 Friday 10-2 Check the notice on the lab door

Remember you are working with live organisms and they have their own time schedule. Someone from your lab group will have to check on your materials

Looking at plates during other classes


Mostly no If you must make some observations during another lab class
Dont bother a lecture in progress Find the instructor and ask Be prepared for a no You are meeting a possible instructor for your next class

Materials required for this class.


Text, Totora, Funke and Case Microbiology: An Introduction, 10th ed. Case and Johnson Laboratory Experiments in Microbiology 9th ed. A lab coat or a large Lab shirt to cover yourself. Safety Glasses NO eating in the laboratory

As you can see


Sometimes there is a blur between what we do in lab and what we do in class.

Evaluation
See class outline

Grading Scale
A 90% and above B 80%90% C 68%-80% D 50%-67% Fail below 50% Attendance will be taken in the first minutes of class. Each absence will result in the loss of points from the total possible.

Extra Credit is possible.

Participation Credit
Joining ASM or NCMS (5pt) Answer question or ask one 1pt Enter microbe of the month 1pt Attend a meeting or lecture on microbiology and hand in a report (10pt) Field trip (to be announced) (5pt) Max of 15pt

While some of the lecture material will change


The Exam dates will not.

Nick Kapp Ph.D.


7384415 Kapp@smccd.net 8224

What is a Microbe
Smaller than 0.1mm Includes bugs, things, germs, viruses, protozoan, bacteria, animalcules, small suckers

Nomenclature
Carolus Linnaeus (1735) Genus species By custom once mentioned can be abbreviated with initial of genus followed by specific epithet. E. coli When two organisms share a common genus are related.

Why study Microbiology


Microbes are related to all life.
In all environments Many beneficial aspects Related to life processes (food web, nutrient cycling) Only a minority are pathogenic. Most of our problems are caused by microbes

EIDs
Emerging infectious diseases
Weapons of mass destruction New evolutionary features Response to man encroaching on the environment

Can you name an example?

Microbes in research
10 trillion human cells 10x this number microbes Easy to grow Biochemistry is essentially the same Simple and easy to study

Biotechnology
Use of biological systems to produce useful items The use of biological information to make things or improve the human condition

Diversity of Microbes
Bacteria-single celled prokaryotes Protozoa-eukaryotic, single celled, colonial, many ways of nutrition Fungi- absorb nutrients, single celled filamentous Viruses-acellular entities Others- worms, insects

Bacteria
Prokaryotes Peptidoglycan cell walls Binary fission For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis
Figure 1.1a

Archaea:
Prokaryotic Lack peptidoglycan Live in extreme environments Include:
Methanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme thermophiles
Halobacteria not from book

Eukaryotes Chitin cell walls Use organic chemicals for energy Molds and mushrooms are multicellular consisting of masses of mycelia, which are composed of filaments called hyphae Yeasts are unicellular

Fungi

Figure 1.1b

Protozoa
Eukaryotes Absorb or ingest organic chemicals May be motile via pseudopods, cilia, or flagella Most free some parasites
Figure 1.1c

Algae
Eukaryotes Cellulose cell walls Use photosynthesis for energy (primary producers) Produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds Metabolically diverse

Figure 1.1d

Acellular Consist of DNA or RNA core Core is surrounded by a protein coat Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope Viruses are replicated only when they are in a living host cell

Viruses

Figure 1.1e

Multicellular Animal Parasites


Eukaryote Multicellular animals Parasitic flatworms and round worms are called helminths. Microscopic stages in life cycles.

Figure fluke

The Scientific Method


Make an observation Make a hypothesis Test the hypothesis Draw your conclusions repeat

Requirements for Scientific methods


Single variables Experimental controls How can this be used to discover things?
Does HIV cause AIDS??? Discuss

Knowledge of microorganisms:
Allows humans to
Prevent food spoilage Prevent disease occurrence
Others?

Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine and in microbiology laboratories.

Universal precautions set up by CDC


Use gloves, gowns, masks and goggles Minimize risk of needle sticks Disinfections procedure Preventative treatment after exposure Reduce risk Treat all patients the same HBV greater risk than HIV

The Debate Over Spontaneous Generation


The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter is called spontaneous generation. According to spontaneous generation, a vital force forms life. The Alternative hypothesis, that the living organisms arise from preexisting life, is called biogenesis.

Evidence Pro and Con


1668: Francisco Redi filled six jars with decaying meat.
Conditions 3 jars covered with fine net 3 open jars Results No maggots Maggots appeared

From where did the maggots come? What was the purpose of the sealed jars? Spontaneous generation or biogenesis?

Evidence Pro and Con


1765: Lazzaro Spallanzani boiled nutrient solutions in flasks.

Conditions Results Nutrient broth placed in No microbial growth flask, heated, then sealed Spontaneous generation or biogenesis?

The Theory of Biogenesis


Pasteurs S-shaped flask kept microbes out but let air in.

Figure 1.3

Where is Microbiology currently being practiced? I.e. jobs


Put your Choice here

A timeline of Microbiology
Fig 1.4 Some highlights
1665 Hooke 1673 van Leeuwenhoeks microscopes 1735 Linnaeus Nomenclature 1798 Jenner vaccine 1857 Pasteur Fermentation 1876 Koch germ theory of disease

The Golden Age of Microbiology


1857-1914 Beginning with Pasteurs work, discoveries included the relationship between microbes and disease, immunity, and antimicrobial drugs

Fermentation and Pasteurization


Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for fermentation. Fermentation is the conversation of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine. Microbial growth is also responsible for spoilage of food. Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid).

Fermentation and Pasteurization


Pasteur demonstrated that these spoilage bacteria could be killed by heat that was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine. This application of a high heat for a short time is called pasteurization.
Figure 1.4

The Germ Theory of Disease


1835: Agostino Bassi showed a silkworm disease was caused by a fungus. 1865: Pasteur believed that another silkworm disease was caused by a protozoan. 1840s: Ignaz Semmelwise advocated hand washing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another.

The Germ Theory of Disease


1860s: Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections after looking at Pasteurs work showing microbes are in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal diseases. 1876: Robert Koch provided proof that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided the experimental steps, Kochs postulates, used to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease.

The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy


Treatment with chemicals is chemotherapy. Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infectious disease can be synthetic drugs or antibiotics. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes. Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat malaria. 1910: Paul Ehrlich developed a synthetic arsenic drug, salvarsan, to treat syphilis. 1930s: Sulfonamides were synthesized.

1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic. He observed that Penicillium fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus. 1940s: Penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced.

The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy

Similar to Figure 1.5

Modern Developments in Microbiology


Bacteriology is the study of bacteria. Mycology is the study of fungi. Parasitology is the study of protozoa and parasitic worms. Recent advances in genomics, the study of an organisms genes, have provided new tools for classifying microorganisms. Proteomics is looking at the gene products

1901* 1902 Ross Malaria transmission 1905 Koch TB bacterium 1908 Metchnikoff Phagocytes 1945 Fleming, Chain, Florey Penicillin 1952 Waksman Streptomycin 1969 Delbrck, Hershey, Luria Viral replication 1987 Tonegawa Antibody genetics 1997Prusiner Prions 2003Agre, Mackirron water and ion channels 2005 Marshall, Warren Helicobacter and ulcers 2008 Hausen Papilloma and viruses
* The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Selected Novel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine von Behring Diphtheria antitoxin

Principles of Microscopy
Metric units (table 3.1)
Micrometer Nanometer angstrom

Compound light microscopy


Basic parts
Eyepieces (ocular lens) Base Condenser Iris diaphragm Objective lens Body tube Mechanical stage Adjustment knobs

Magnification
Calculation:
Objective power x ocular power = total power

Parafocial Paracentric Microscopic measurement


Micrometer? Why must we calibrate it?

Modern Developments in Microbiology


Diagnostics Prevention Use as a tool Surveys and vigilance

What you should know?


What are microbes? What types of microbes? Some history Highlights The Magic Bullet Microbes and human Welfare Microbes and Human Disease The CDC