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# The Inverse z-Transform

## In science one tries to tell people, in such a way

as to be understood by everyone, something
that no one ever knew before.
But in poetry, it's the exact opposite.
Paul Dirac
Content and Figures are from Discrete-Time Signal Processing, 2e by Oppenheim, Shafer, and Buck, 1999-2000 Prentice Hall
Inc.
351M Digital Signal Processing
2
The Inverse Z-Transform
Formal inverse z-transform is based on a Cauchy integral
Less formal ways sufficient most of the time
Inspection method
Partial fraction expansion
Power series expansion
Inspection Method
Make use of known z-transform pairs such as

Example: The inverse z-transform of
| | a z
az 1
1
n u a
1
Z n
>

( ) | | | | n u
2
1
n x
2
1
z
z
2
1
1
1
z X
n
1
|
.
|

\
|
= >

## Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing
3
Inverse Z-Transform by Partial Fraction Expansion
Assume that a given z-transform can be expressed as

Apply partial fractional expansion

First term exist only if M>N
B
r
is obtained by long division
Second term represents all first order poles
Third term represents an order s pole
There will be a similar term for every high-order pole
Each term can be inverse transformed by inspection
( )

=
N
0 k
k
k
M
0 k
k
k
z a
z b
z X
( )
( )

=

= =

+ =
s
1 m
m
1
i
m
N
i k , 1 k
1
k
k
N M
0 r
r
r
z d 1
C
z d 1
A
z B z X
351M Digital Signal Processing
4
Partial Fractional Expression

Coefficients are given as

Easier to understand with examples

( )
( )

=

= =

+ =
s
1 m
m
1
i
m
N
i k , 1 k
1
k
k
N M
0 r
r
r
z d 1
C
z d 1
A
z B z X
( ) ( )
k
d z
1
k k
z X z d 1 A
=

=
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) | |
1
i
d w
1
s
i
m s
m s
m s
i
m
w X w d 1
dw
d
d ! m s
1
C

)
`

=
351M Digital Signal Processing
5
Example: 2
nd
Order Z-Transform
Order of nominator is smaller than denominator (in terms of z
-1
)
No higher order pole

( )
2
1
z : ROC
z
2
1
1 z
4
1
1
1
z X
1 1
>
|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|

=

( )
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

=
1
2
1
1
z
2
1
1
A
z
4
1
1
A
z X
( ) 1
4
1
2
1
1
1
z X z
4
1
1 A
1
4
1
z
1
1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

= |
.
|

\
|
=

=

( ) 2
2
1
4
1
1
1
z X z
2
1
1 A
1
2
1
z
1
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|

= |
.
|

\
|
=

=

## Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing
6
Example Continued
ROC extends to infinity
Indicates right sided sequence
( )
2
1
z
z
2
1
1
2
z
4
1
1
1
z X
1 1
>
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

=

| | | | | | n u
4
1
- n u
2
1
2 n x
n n
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
351M Digital Signal Processing
7
Example #2
Long division to obtain B
o
( )
( )
( )
1 z
z 1 z
2
1
1
z 1
z
2
1
z
2
3
1
z z 2 1
z X
1 1
2
1
2 1
2 1
>

|
.
|

\
|

+
=
+
+ +
=

1 z 5
2 z 3 z
2
1 z 2 z
1 z
2
3
z
2
1
1
1 2
1 2
1 2

+
+ +
+

( )
( )
1 1
1
z 1 z
2
1
1
z 5 1
2 z X

|
.
|

\
|

+
+ =
( )
1
2
1
1
z 1
A
z
2
1
1
A
2 z X

+

+ =
( ) 9 z X z
2
1
1 A
2
1
z
1
1
= |
.
|

\
|
=
=

( ) ( ) 8 z X z 1 A
1 z
1
2
= =
=

## Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing
8
Example #2 Continued
ROC extends to infinity
Indicates right-sides sequence
( ) 1 z
z 1
8
z
2
1
1
9
2 z X
1
1
>

| | | | | | | | n 8u - n u
2
1
9 n 2 n x
n
|
.
|

\
|
o =
351M Digital Signal Processing
9
Inverse Z-Transform by Power Series Expansion
The z-transform is power series

In expanded form

Z-transforms of this form can generally be inversed easily
Especially useful for finite-length series
Example
( ) | |

=
n
n
z n x z X
( ) | | | | | | | | | | + + + + + + =
2 1 1 2
z 2 x z 1 x 0 x z 1 x z 2 x z X
( ) ( )( )
1 2
1 1 1 2
z
2
1
1 z
2
1
z
z 1 z 1 z
2
1
1 z z X

+ =
+ |
.
|

\
|
=
| | | | | | | | | | 1 n
2
1
n 1 n
2
1
2 n n x o + o + o + o =
| |

=
=
=
=
=
=
2 n 0
1 n
2
1
0 n 1
1 n
2
1
2 n 1
n x
351M Digital Signal Processing
10
Z-Transform Properties: Linearity
Notation

Linearity

Note that the ROC of combined sequence may be larger than
either ROC
This would happen if some pole/zero cancellation occurs
Example:

Both sequences are right-sided
Both sequences have a pole z=a
Both have a ROC defined as |z|>|a|
In the combined sequence the pole at z=a cancels with a zero at z=a
The combined ROC is the entire z plane except z=0
We did make use of this property already, where?
| | ( )
x
Z
R ROC z X n x =
| | | | ( ) ( )
2 1
x x 2 1
Z
2 1
R R ROC z bX z aX n bx n ax = + +
| | | | | | N - n u a - n u a n x
n n
=
351M Digital Signal Processing
11
Z-Transform Properties: Time Shifting
Here n
o
is an integer
If positive the sequence is shifted right
If negative the sequence is shifted left
The ROC can change the new term may
Add or remove poles at z=0 or z=
Example

| | ( )
x
n Z
o
R ROC z X z n n x
o
=

( )
4
1
z
z
4
1
1
1
z z X
1
1
>
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

| | | | 1 - n u
4
1
n x
1 - n
|
.
|

\
|
=
351M Digital Signal Processing
12
Z-Transform Properties: Multiplication by Exponential
ROC is scaled by |z
o
|
All pole/zero locations are scaled
If z
o
is a positive real number: z-plane shrinks or expands
If z
o
is a complex number with unit magnitude it rotates
Example: We know the z-transform pair

Lets find the z-transform of

| | ( )
x o o
Z n
o
R z ROC z / z X n x z =
| | 1 z : ROC
z - 1
1
n u
1 -
Z
>
| | ( ) | | ( ) | | ( ) | | n u re
2
1
n u re
2
1
n u n cos r n x
n
j
n
j
o
n
o o
e e
+ = e =
( ) r z
z re 1
2 / 1
z re 1
2 / 1
z X
1 j 1 j
o o
>

=
e e
351M Digital Signal Processing
13
Z-Transform Properties: Differentiation
Example: We want the inverse z-transform of

Lets differentiate to obtain rational expression

Making use of z-transform properties and ROC

| |
( )
x
Z
R ROC
dz
z dX
z n nx =
( ) ( ) a z az 1 log z X
1
> + =

( ) ( )
1
1
1
2
az 1
1
az
dz
z dX
z
az 1
az
dz
z dX

+
=
+

=
| | ( ) | | 1 n u a a n nx
1 n
=

| | ( ) | | 1 n u
n
a
1 n x
n
1 n
=

351M Digital Signal Processing
14
Z-Transform Properties: Conjugation

Example
| | ( )
x
* * Z *
R ROC z X n x =
( ) | |
( ) | | | |
( ) | | ( ) | | | | { } n x Z z n x z n x z X
z n x z n x z X
z n x z X
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
-

=
-

=
-
- - -

=
-
-

=
-

= = =
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

## Copyright (C) 2005 Gner Arslan

351M Digital Signal Processing
15
Z-Transform Properties: Time Reversal
ROC is inverted
Example:

Time reversed version of

| | ( )
x
Z
R
1
ROC z / 1 X n x =
| | | | n u a n x
n
=

| | n u a
n
( )
1
1 1 -
1 -1
a z
z a - 1
z a -
az 1
1
z X

< =

=
351M Digital Signal Processing
16
Z-Transform Properties: Convolution
Convolution in time domain is multiplication in z-domain
Example:Lets calculate the convolution of

Multiplications of z-transforms is

ROC: if |a|<1 ROC is |z|>1 if |a|>1 ROC is |z|>|a|
Partial fractional expansion of Y(z)
| | | | ( ) ( )
2
x 1 x 2 1
Z
2 1
R R : ROC z X z X n x n x -
| | | | | | | | n u n x and n u a n x
2
n
1
= =
( ) a z : ROC
az 1
1
z X
1
1
>

=

( ) 1 z : ROC
z 1
1
z X
1
2
>

=

( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
1 1
2 1
z 1 az 1
1
z X z X z Y

= =
( ) 1 z : ROC asume
az 1
1
z 1
1
a 1
1
z Y
1 1
> |
.
|

\
|

=

| | | | | | ( ) n u a n u
a 1
1
n y
1 n+