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Group 6

Arabic History
It is one of the worlds major languages. It is widely spoken on Two Continents entire breadth of North Africa, to the Arabian Peninsula and Entire Middle East.

It is the official language of Eighteen Countries with a total population of about 120 Million, placing it among the Top 10 tongues of the planet in number of speakers. such as follows: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, South Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates (U.A.E), Bahrain and Qatar.

In 1973, the language was formally recognized by the United Nations (U.N), together with their Numerical, Geographical, Political and Cultural Status.

Arabic is one of the Sixth Official Language all over the world and the others are English, French, Spanish, Russian and Chinese.

The Arabic Alphabet and Writing System


There are Twenty Eight Letters (28) in the Arabic Alphabet. All Arabic Letters are considered to be consonants. However, three letters such as Alif (), Waw( )and Ya (Alif( ,) Waw( ,)and Ya( ,)are also used as Elongative Vowels. Note: Arabic is written from Right to Left. The Arabic letters in the top line and their approximate pronunciation (and their symbols in brackets).

Arabic Alphabet

KHA

HA

JIM

THA

TA

BA

ALIF

kh

th

SAD

SHIN

SIN

ZAI

RA

DHAL

DAL

sh

dh

QAF
q

FA
f

GHAIN
gh

AIN
a

ZAD
z

TA
t

DAD
d

YA
y

HA
h

WAW
w

NUN
n

MIM
m

LAM
l

KAF
k

The Eleven (11) Arabic Peculiar Sound


Apart from the ordinary sounds available in the Indian Languages especially Hindi are Eleven (11) sounds in the Arabic language which may be termed as a very Peculiar of Arabic.

The sounds are as follows: (Read from Right to Left)

Dhal

Kha

Ha

Tha

Dhad Sad

Qaf

Ghain

Ain

Zad

Ta

Guidelines of the learners to say these sounds as close to the correct sound as possible.

Put the tip of the tongue on the inner edge of the upper teeth. It should be said like th in Elizabeth. For saying this sound, also only your throat functions. This sound may be compared with the snoring of a person.

Only your throat shall be function to say this sound. Sound thus made will be heavy H and this is precisely what we know as Arabic. This sound can be said by putting the tip of tongue on the inner side of the upper teeth. This sound may be compared with soft dh sound as in Dhow. Give your tongue the shape of a shallow bowl. Slowly close your mouth when you intend to say this sound. This sound may be compared with the s sound as in a blast.

Shape of your tongue and other instruction remaining the same as in Sad, except only that the tip of the tongue shall join the palate at the roots of the upper teeth both before and after saying the sound. This sound may be compared with d as in dad.

Put the tip of the tongue on the frontal palate and shape of the tongue remains the same. This sound may be compared with f as in flat.

Shape of the tongue remains the same as in the foregoing sound. This tongue will have to be withdrawn when you intend to say the sound.

Open your mouth at half its capacity. It may be remembered have only the throat functions to say this sound.

Open your mouth at half its capacity. This sound is very close to t in the French language. It may also be compared with the strong gargling sound.

Stop the breath in the throat. Open your mouth moderately. Lower the uvula and lift the root of the tongue.

FOUR (4) DIFFERENT SHAPES


1. Independent Shape As would be evident from the word independent. Each letter is written independent of the other i.e., one letter separate from the other.

2. Initial Shape It is intended to mean the shapes of the letters in the beginning of the words.

3. Medial Shape It is intended to mean the shape of the letters somewhere between the first and the last letters of a word.

4. Terminal Shape It is intended to mean the shapes of the letters at the end of the word.

Different Shapes of Arabic Alphabet


JOINT SHAPE --- ---TERMINAL SHAPE MEDIAL SHAPE --- ---INITIAL SHAPE --- INDEPENDENT SHAPE

----------

----------

---

---

The Vowels
Fatha Sign This mark written on the top of the Arabic letter is called Fatha and stands for short ( a). This vowel is pronounced as a. Arabic Alphabet Using FATHA Sign: Word Character

A Ba

Ta
Tha

Kasra Sign This mark

written below the Arabic letter is called Kasra

which stands for short i. This pronounced as the vowel in Tin.

Arabic Alphabet Using KASRA Sign:

Word I Bi Ti Thi

Character

Damma Sign This mark

on the Arabic letter stands for short u. This u

is pronounced like vowel in Pull. This mark is called in Arabic


DAMMA.

Arabic Alphabet Using DAMMA Sign: Word U Bu Tu Thu Character

Long vowels
The Alif Almadd/Madda If the letter Alif ( )comes after an

alphabet with fatha , then this alif will be pronounced like


double fatha and this a is pronounced like a of father.

Sound Baa Taa Thaa Jaa

Joint

Unjoint

The Waw Almadd/Madda If the letter Waw ( )with sukoon

comes after an alphabet with dammah

then this Waw which

is called Waw Maddah will be pronounced like double Dammah u and this u is pronounced like the vowel of food.

Sound Buu Tuu Thuu Juu

Joint

Unjoint

The Ya Almadd/Maddah - If the letter Ya with sukoon

comes after an

alphabet with kasra , then this Ya Madda will be pronounced like


double vowel kasra , i and this i is pronounced like the vowel of deep.

Sound Bii Tii Thii Jii

Joint

Unjoint

Tanween or Arabic Nunation


-Its an n sound added to the end of the word in certain circumstances. -Is indicated by double the short vowel at the end of the word. Three types of Tanween Fatha Tanween - is pronounced en as in then, when, men and etc. Even though many native Arabic speaker uses an to indicate it, since a maps to the aaaa sound en is probably more indicate.

Arabic Alphabet Using FATHATAIN/FATHATAN Sign:


Word An Character

Ban
Tan Than Jan

Kasra Tanween -is pronounce in as in in, sin, fin and etc. Arabic Alphabet Using KASRATAIN/KASRATAN Sign: Word In Bin Tin Thin Jin Character

Damma Tanween - is pronounced as a short oo followed by an n.

Arabic Alphabet Using

Dammatain/Dammatan Sign:

Word Un Bun Tun Thun Jun

Character

Absence of vowel Sukoon


This circle above the letter is called Sukoon. It indicates that such a letter is not followed by any vowels sound, but the alphabet with sukoon is joined with the former alphabet.

Arabic Alphabet with Vowel SUKOON Sign:


Word Bat Tab Tath Jam Han Character

Shaddah
-this sign written above the Arabic alphabet is called Shaddah. The Alphabet with Shaddah is joined with the former alphabet and will be

pronounced twice like the letter s in dis-solve.

Arabic Alphabet with Shadda Sign:

Word Tassa Bamma Qarra Mimma Tabbatha

Character

Maddah
-this Arabic alphabet with mark will be prolonged three(3) or four(4) times. Arabic Alphabet with Maddah Sign: Word Character B T Th J

End

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GROUP 6
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