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# Chapter 4

## Statistical Process Control

Yitbarek Takele (PhD, MBA , MA Econ) College of Business & Economics Department of Management Addis Ababa University

Lecture Outline
Basics of Statistical Process Control Control Charts Control Charts for Attributes Control Charts for Variables Control Chart Patterns SPC with Excel Process Capability
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## Basics of Statistical Process Control

Statistical Process Control (SPC) - technique

monitoring production process to detect and prevent poor quality subset of items produced to use for inspection process is within statistical control limits

UCL

Sample

LCL

## Control Charts - tool

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Variability
Random

Non-Random

common causes inherent in a process can be eliminated only through improvements in the system

special causes due to identifiable factors can be modified through operator or management action

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SPC in TQM
SPC

Technique for identifying problems and make improvements contributes to the TQM goal of continuous improvements

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Quality Measures
Attribute

An attribute is a product characteristic such as color, surface texture, cleanliness, or perhaps smell or taste. Attributes can be evaluated quickly with a discrete response such as good or bad, acceptable or not, or yes or no. An attribute evaluation is sometimes referred to as a qualitative classification, since the response is not measured.
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Quality Measures
Attribute
Even if quality specifications are complex and extensive, a simple attribute test might be used to determine whether or not a product or service is defective. For example, an operator might test a light bulb by simply turning it on and seeing if it lights. If it does not, it can be examined to find out the exact technical cause for failure, but for SPC purposes, the fact that it is defective has been determined.
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Quality Measures
Variable

A variable measure is a product characteristic that is measured on a continuous scale such as length, weight, temperature, or time. For example, the amount of liquid detergent in a plastic container can be measured to see if it conforms to the companys product specifications. Or the time it takes to serve a customer at McDonalds can be measured to see if it is quick enough.
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Quality Measures
Variable

Since a variable evaluation is the result of some form of measurement, it is sometimes referred to as a quantitative classification method. Because it is a measurement, a variable classification typically provides more information about the productthe weight of a product is more informative than simply saying the product is good or bad.
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## Applying SPC to Service

Nature of defect is different in services Service defect is a failure to meet customer requirements Monitor times, customer satisfaction

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## Applying SPC to Service (cont.)

Hospitals

timeliness and quickness of care, staff responses to requests, accuracy of lab tests, cleanliness, courtesy, accuracy of paperwork, speed of admittance and checkouts waiting time to check out, frequency of out-of-stock items, quality of food items, cleanliness, customer complaints, checkout register errors

Grocery stores

Airlines

flight delays, lost luggage and luggage handling, waiting time at ticket counters and check-in, agent and flight attendant courtesy, accurate flight information, passenger cabin cleanliness and maintenance

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## Applying SPC to Service (cont.)

Fast-food restaurants

waiting time for service, customer complaints, cleanliness, food quality, order accuracy, employee courtesy order accuracy, operator knowledge and courtesy, packaging, delivery time, phone order waiting time

Catalogue-order companies

Insurance companies

billing accuracy, timeliness of claims processing, agent availability and response time

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## Where to Use Control Charts

Process has a tendency to go out of control Process is particularly harmful and costly if it goes out of control Examples

at the beginning of a process because it is a waste of time and money to begin production process with bad supplies before a costly or irreversible point, after which product is difficult to rework or correct before and after assembly or painting operations that might cover defects before the outgoing final product or service is delivered
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Control Charts
A graph that establishes control limits of a process Control limits

Types of charts

Attributes
p-chart c-chart

## upper and lower bands of a control chart

Variables
range (R-chart) mean (x bar chart)

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## Process Control Chart

Out of control Upper control limit Process average Lower control limit

10

Sample number
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Normal Distribution

95% 99.74% -3 -2 -1 =0 1 2 3

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Sigma Limits
Occasionally, z is equal to 2.00 but most frequently is 3.00. A z value of 2.00 corresponds to an overall normal probability of 95%, and z 3.00 corresponds to a normal probability of 99.73%. The smaller the value of z, the more narrow the control limits are and the more sensitive the chart is to changes in the production process. Control charts using z 2.00 are often referred to as having 2-sigma (2) limits (referring to two standard deviations), whereas z 3.00 means 3-sigma (3) limits.
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A Process Is in Control If
1. no sample points outside limits 2. most points near process average 3. about equal number of points above and below centerline 4. points appear randomly distributed

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## Control Charts for Attributes

p-charts
uses portion defective in a sample

c-charts
uses number of defects in an item

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p-Chart
UCL = p + zp LCL = p - zp
z = number of standard deviations from process average p = sample proportion defective; an estimate of process average p = standard deviation of sample proportion p(1 - p) n
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p =

p-Chart Example
The Western Jeans Company produces denim jeans. The company wants to establish a p-chart to monitor the production process and maintain high quality. Western believes that approximately 99.74% of the variability in the production process (corresponding to 3-sigma limits,or z 3.00) is random and thus should be within control limits, whereas 0.26% of the process variability is not random and suggests that the process is out of control. The company has taken 20 samples (one per day for 20 days), each containing 100 pairs of jeans (n =100), and inspected them for defects, the results of which are as follows.
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p-Chart Example
SAMPLE NUMBER OF DEFECTS PROPORTION DEFECTIVE

1 2 3 : : 20

6 0 4 : : 18 200

## 20 samples of 100 pairs of jeans

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p-Chart Example
The proportion defective for the population is not known. The company wants to construct a p-chart to determine when the production process might be out of control. Solution Since p is not known, it can be estimated from the total sample:

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## p-Chart Example (cont.)

total defects p = total sample observations = 200 / 20(100) = 0.10 UCL = p + z UCL = 0.190 LCL = p - z LCL = 0.010 p(1 - p) = 0.10 + 3 n 0.10(1 - 0.10) 100

p(1 - p) = 0.10 - 3 n

## 0.10(1 - 0.10) 100

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0.20 0.18 0.16 Proportion defective 0.14 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 2 LCL = 0.010 4 6 8 10 12 14 Sample number 16 18 20 p = 0.10 UCL = 0.190

## p-Chart Example (cont.)

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p-Chart Example
The process was below the lower control limits for sample 2 (i.e., during day 2). Although this could be perceived as a good result since it means there were very few defects, it might also suggest that something was wrong with the inspection process during that week that should be checked out. If there is no problem with the inspection process, then management would want to know what caused the quality of the process to improve. Perhaps better denim material from a new supplier that week or a different operator was working. The process was above the upper limit during day 19. This suggests that the process may not be in control and the cause should be investigated. The cause could be defective or maladjusted machinery, a problem with an operator, defective materials (i.e., denim cloth), or a number of other correctable 4-26 problems.

p-Chart Example
In fact, there is an upward trend in the number of defectives throughout the 20-day test period. The process was consistently moving toward an out-of-control situation. This trend represents a pattern in the observations, which suggests a nonrandom cause. If this was the actual control chart used to monitor the process (and not the initial chart), it is likely this pattern would have indicated an out-of-control situation before day 19, which would have alerted the operator to make corrections.

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c-Chart

UCL = c + zc LCL = c - zc
where

c =

## c = number of defects per sample

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c-Chart Example
The Ritz Hotel has 240 rooms. The hotels housekeeping department is responsible for maintaining the quality of the rooms appearance and cleanliness. Each individual housekeeper is responsible for an area encompassing 20 rooms. Every room in use is thoroughly cleaned and its supplies, toiletries, and so on are restocked each day. Any defects that the housekeeping staff notice that are not part of the normal housekeeping service are supposed to be reported to hotel maintenance. Every room is briefly inspected each day by a housekeeping supervisor. However, hotel management also conducts inspection tours at random for a detailed, thorough inspection for quality-control purposes. 4-29

c-Chart Example
The management inspectors not only check for normal housekeeping service defects like clean sheets, dust, room supplies, room literature, or towels, but also for defects like an inoperative or missing TV remote, poor TV picture quality or reception, defective lamps, a malfunctioning clock, tears or stains in the bedcovers or curtains, or a malfunctioning curtain pull. An inspection sample includes 12 rooms, that is, one room selected at random from each of the twelve 20-room blocks serviced by a housekeeper. Following are the results from 15 inspection samples conducted at random during a onemonth period:
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c-Chart Example
The hotel believes that approximately 99% of the defects (corresponding to 3-sigma limits) are caused by natural, random variations in the housekeeping and room maintenance service, with 1% caused by nonrandom variability. They want to construct a c-chart to monitor the housekeeping service.
Solution Because c, the population process average, is not known, the sample estimate, , can be used instead:

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c-Chart (cont.)
Number of defects in 15 sample rooms
SAMPLE

NUMBER OF DEFECTS

1 2 3

12 8 16

## 190 c= = 12.67 15 UCL = c + zc = 12.67 + 3 = 23.35 LCL = c + zc = 12.67 - 3 = 1.99 12.67

: :
15

: :
15 190

12.67

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24
UCL = 23.35

21
18 15 12 9 6 3

Number of defects

c = 12.67

c-Chart (cont.)

LCL = 1.99

10

12

14

16

Sample number

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c-Chart Example
All the sample observations are within the control limits, suggesting that the room quality is in control. This chart would be considered reliable to monitor the room quality in the future.

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## Control Charts for Variables

Mean chart ( x -Chart )
uses average of a sample

## Range chart ( R-Chart )

uses amount of dispersion in a sample

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x-bar Chart
x1 + x2 + ... xk = x= k = UCL = x + A2R
where = x = average of sample means

= LCL = x - A2R

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## x- bar Chart Example

The Goliath Tool Company produces slip-ring bearings, which look like flat doughnuts or washers. They fit around shafts or rods, such as drive shafts in machinery or motors. At an early stage in the production process for a particular slip-ring bearing, the outside diameter of the bearing is measured. Employees have taken 10 samples (during a 10-day period) of 5 slip-ring bearings and measured the diameter of the bearings. The individual observations from each sample (or subgroup) are shown as follows:
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## x-bar Chart Example

OBSERVATIONS (SLIP- RING DIAMETER, CM)

SAMPLE k
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1
5.02 5.01 4.99 5.03 4.95 4.97 5.05 5.09 5.14 5.01

2
5.01 5.03 5.00 4.91 4.92 5.06 5.01 5.10 5.10 4.98

3
4.94 5.07 4.93 5.01 5.03 5.06 5.10 5.00 4.99 5.08

4
4.99 4.95 4.92 4.98 5.05 4.96 4.96 4.99 5.08 5.07

5
4.96 4.96 4.99 4.89 5.01 5.03 4.99 5.08 5.09 4.99

x
4.98 5.00 4.97 4.96 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 50.09

R
0.08 0.12 0.08 0.14 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.10 1.15

Example 15.4

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Approach:1

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## x- bar Chart Example

Approach-2
In the second approach to developing an -chart, the following formulas are used to compute the control limits:

where is the average of the sample means and is the average range value. A2 is a tabular value that is used to establish the control limits. Values of A2 are included in Appendix. They were developed specifically for determining the control limits for x-charts and are comparable to three-standard deviation (3) limits. These table values are frequently used to develop control charts.
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## x- bar Chart Example (cont.)

50.09 = x x= = = 5.01 cm k 10 = + A R = 5.01 + (0.58)(0.115) = 5.08 UCL = x 2

## Retrieve Factor Value A2

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5.10 5.08 5.06 5.04 Mean 5.02 5.00 4.98 4.96 4.94 4.92 LCL = 4.94 UCL = 5.08

= = 5.01 x

## x- bar Chart Example (cont.)

| 1

| 2

| 3

| | | | 4 5 6 7 Sample number

| 8

| 9

| 10

Notice that the process is on the UCL for sample 9; in fact, samples 4 to 9 show an upward trend. This would suggest that the process variability is subject to nonrandom 4-42 causes and should be investigated.

R- Chart
UCL = D4R LCL = D3R R k

R=

## Where R = range of each sample k = number of samples

D3 and D4 are table values like A2 for determining control limits that have been developed based on range values rather than standard deviations.
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R-Chart Example
OBSERVATIONS (SLIP-RING DIAMETER, CM)

SAMPLE k
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1
5.02 5.01 4.99 5.03 4.95 4.97 5.05 5.09 5.14 5.01

2
5.01 5.03 5.00 4.91 4.92 5.06 5.01 5.10 5.10 4.98

3
4.94 5.07 4.93 5.01 5.03 5.06 5.10 5.00 4.99 5.08

4
4.99 4.95 4.92 4.98 5.05 4.96 4.96 4.99 5.08 5.07

5
4.96 4.96 4.99 4.89 5.01 5.03 4.99 5.08 5.09 4.99

x
4.98 5.00 4.97 4.96 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 50.09

R
0.08 0.12 0.08 0.14 0.13 0.10 0.14 0.11 0.15 0.10 1.15

Example 15.3

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## R-Chart Example (cont.)

R 1.15 R= = = 0.115 k 10

Example 15.3

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## R-Chart Example (cont.)

0.28
0.24 0.20 Range 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.04 0 LCL = 0 | | | 1 2 3 | | | | 4 5 6 7 Sample number | 8 | 9 | 10 UCL = 0.243 R = 0.115

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## R-Chart Example (cont.)

This example illustrates the need to employ the R-chart and the c-chart together. The R-chart in this example suggests that the process is in control, since none of the ranges for the samples are close to the control limits. However, the -chart in Example 3.4 suggests that the process is not in control. In fact, the ranges for samples 8 and 10 were relatively narrow, whereas the means for these samples were relatively high. The use of both charts together provided a more complete picture of the overall process variability.
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## Using x- bar and R-Charts Together

Process average and process variability must be in control It is possible for samples to have very narrow ranges, but their averages is beyond control limits It is possible for sample averages to be in control, but ranges might be very large

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UCL

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UCL

LCL

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## Zones for Pattern Tests

UCL Zone A
= 2 2 sigma = x + 3 (A2R)
= 3 sigma = x + A2R

Zone B
= 1 1 sigma = x + 3 (A2R)

## Zone C Process average

= x

Zone C
= 1 sigma = x - 1 (A2R) 3

Zone B
= 2 sigma = x - 2 (A2R) 3

Zone A LCL
| 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13

= 3 sigma = x - A2R

Sample number

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## Control Chart Patterns

8 consecutive points on one side of the center line 8 consecutive points up or down across zones 13 points alternating up or down 2 out of 3 consecutive points in zone A but still inside the control limits 4 out of 5 consecutive points in zone A or B

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## Performing a Pattern Test

SAMPLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x 4.98 5.00 4.96 4.94 4.99 5.01 5.02 5.05 5.08 5.03 ABOVE/BELOW B B B B B A A A A UP/DOWN U D D U U U U U D ZONE B C A A C C C B A B

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Sample Size

## Attribute charts require larger sample sizes

50 to 100 parts in a sample

## Variable charts require smaller samples

2 to 10 parts in a sample

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UCL=0.19

LCL=0.01

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## SPC with Excel: Formulas

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Process Capability
Tolerances

design specifications reflecting product requirements range of natural variability in a process what we measure with control charts

Process capability

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Process Capability
Design Specifications (a) Natural variation exceeds design specifications; process is not capable of meeting specifications all the time.
Process Design Specifications (b) Design specifications and natural variation the same; process is capable of meeting specifications most of the time. Process

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## Process Capability (cont.)

Design Specifications (c) Design specifications greater than natural variation; process is capable of always conforming to specifications.
Process Design Specifications (d) Specifications greater than natural variation, but process off center; capable but some output will not meet upper specification. Process

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## Process Capability Measures

Process Capability Ratio
Cp = tolerance range process range

## upper specification limit lower specification limit = 6

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Computing Cp
Net weight specification = 9.0 oz 0.5 oz Process mean = 8.80 oz Process standard deviation = 0.12 oz upper specification limit lower specification limit Cp = 6 9.5 - 8.5 = = 1.39 6(0.12)

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## Process Capability Measures

Process Capability Index
= x - lower specification limit , 3 = upper specification limit - x 3

Cpk = minimum

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Computing Cpk
Net weight specification = 9.0 oz 0.5 oz Process mean = 8.80 oz Process standard deviation = 0.12 oz
= x - lower specification limit , 3 = upper specification limit - x 3

Cpk = minimum

= minimum

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## Appendix: Determining Control Limits for x-bar and R-Charts

SAMPLE SIZE n 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 FACTOR FOR x-CHART A2 1.88 1.02 0.73 0.58 0.48 0.42 0.37 0.44 0.11 0.99 0.77 0.55 0.44 0.22 0.11 0.00 0.99 0.99 0.88 FACTORS FOR R-CHART D3 D4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.14 0.18 0.22 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.33 0.35 0.36 0.38 0.39 0.40 0.41 3.27 2.57 2.28 2.11 2.00 1.92 1.86 1.82 1.78 1.74 1.72 1.69 1.67 1.65 1.64 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.59

Fact ors

Return

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Discussion

Session

Thank

You