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# Different types of relay and characteristics

Overcurrent relay
Directional overcurrent relay Differential relay

Distance relay
Overvoltage and under voltage relay Digital relay

Comparators

Comparator
Phasors are fundamental quantities in the analysis of

ac systems. A comparator is a design element used in relays to compare two phasors either in magnitude or phase. A distance relay will always have a phase comparator or magnitude comparator regardless of the technology used, i.e., electromechanical, solid-state, and microprocessor-based relays.

Cont..
A comparator will give the relay system an output when

## the conditions for operation are satisfied.

Two types comparator- phase and magnitude

## Phase comparators are used widely in distance relay

designs.

Phase Comparator
Phase comparators are used to detect when one a.c.

input is more or less than 90 out of phase with a second a.c. input. Phase-angle comparator logic circuitry produces an output when the phase angle between two quantities is within certain critical limits. Either of these two quantities, the polarizing (or reference quantity) and operating quantity, may be current or voltage.

Phase Comparator
In Figure, given two arbitrary phasors, S1 and S2, the output of a phase comparator is a logic 1 (the comparator has operated) if
S1 j 900 Me S2

90 S S 90
0 0 1 2

Cont..
The quantity
is any arbitrary magnitude

for the condition to be met and it does not affect the operation of the phase comparator.

Phase comparator

## Generalized Use of Phase Comparators

Phase comparators are used widely in distance relay

designs The input phasors are generally a combination of voltages and currents. From these inputs, the ratio V/I, or impedance, is proportional to the distance to the fault In general the input a phase comparator is given by

Constants k1, k2, k3, and k4 are design constants that may be complex and introduce a phase shift.

Cont..
A general procedure to derive the impedance

## In most applications, k1 and k3 are real numbers

Cont..

The quantities a and b are vectors and do have the same units as Z, i.e., they are impedances as well.

In general, a and b will be sufficient to define the operating characteristics of the unit

## Basic Application Example of a Phase Comparator

For this purpose, let V and I be the voltage and

current input to the relay and the inputs to the phase comparator be
where Zc is the relay setting

k1 =1, k2 =Zc, k3 = 1, k4 = 0.

Cont

0 Sm S p 180

## The Sine-type Phase Comparator

Magnitude Comparator
Given two arbitrary phasors, SA and SB, the output of

SA jr Ce SB

## Characteristics of amplitude comparator

if S A SB theoutput is 1

## Generalized Use of Magnitude Comparators

If the inputs SA and SB are expressed in terms of

## impedances, either the power-system or relay setting impedances

SA Ce jr SB

SA SB

with C=1, the operating characteristic of the comparator in the R-X diagram can be defined.

S A SB

compare the above with the general equation for the circle

## Basic Application Example of a Magnitude Comparator

Let V and I be the voltage and current input to the

## relay, and the inputs to the magnitude comparator be

where Zc is the relay setting