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Different types of relay and characteristics

Overcurrent relay
Directional overcurrent relay Differential relay

Distance relay
Overvoltage and under voltage relay Digital relay

Comparators

Comparator
Phasors are fundamental quantities in the analysis of

ac systems. A comparator is a design element used in relays to compare two phasors either in magnitude or phase. A distance relay will always have a phase comparator or magnitude comparator regardless of the technology used, i.e., electromechanical, solid-state, and microprocessor-based relays.

Cont..
A comparator will give the relay system an output when

the conditions for operation are satisfied.


Two types comparator- phase and magnitude

Phase comparators are used widely in distance relay

designs.

Phase Comparator
Phase comparators are used to detect when one a.c.

input is more or less than 90 out of phase with a second a.c. input. Phase-angle comparator logic circuitry produces an output when the phase angle between two quantities is within certain critical limits. Either of these two quantities, the polarizing (or reference quantity) and operating quantity, may be current or voltage.

Phase Comparator
In Figure, given two arbitrary phasors, S1 and S2, the output of a phase comparator is a logic 1 (the comparator has operated) if
S1 j 900 Me S2

90 S S 90
0 0 1 2

Cont..
The quantity
is any arbitrary magnitude

for the condition to be met and it does not affect the operation of the phase comparator.

Characteristic of phase comparator

Phase comparator

Generalized Use of Phase Comparators


Phase comparators are used widely in distance relay

designs The input phasors are generally a combination of voltages and currents. From these inputs, the ratio V/I, or impedance, is proportional to the distance to the fault In general the input a phase comparator is given by

Constants k1, k2, k3, and k4 are design constants that may be complex and introduce a phase shift.

Cont..
A general procedure to derive the impedance

characteristic of the comparator on the Z=V/I plane will be developed.

In most applications, k1 and k3 are real numbers

Cont..

The quantities a and b are vectors and do have the same units as Z, i.e., they are impedances as well.

In general, a and b will be sufficient to define the operating characteristics of the unit

Basic Application Example of a Phase Comparator


For this purpose, let V and I be the voltage and

current input to the relay and the inputs to the phase comparator be
where Zc is the relay setting

k1 =1, k2 =Zc, k3 = 1, k4 = 0.

Characteristic of directional relay on the R-X plane

Directional property of mho relay

Cont

Mho relay characteristic

Inputs to cosine-type phase comparator resulting in trip output

Inputs to cosine-type phase comparator causing it to restrain

Inputs to cosine-type comparator causing it to be on threshold

The Sine-type Phase Comparator

0 Sm S p 180

then trip; else restrain

The Sine-type Phase Comparator

The Sine-type Phase Comparator

Magnitude Comparator
Given two arbitrary phasors, SA and SB, the output of

a magnitude comparator is a logic 1 (the comparator has operated) if S A SB

SA jr Ce SB

Characteristics of amplitude comparator


if S A SB theoutput is 1

Inputs to amplitude comparator resulting in trip output

Inputs to amplitude comparator causing it to restrain

Inputs to amplitude comparator causing it to be on the threshold

Generalized Use of Magnitude Comparators


If the inputs SA and SB are expressed in terms of

impedances, either the power-system or relay setting impedances

SA Ce jr SB

SA SB

with C=1, the operating characteristic of the comparator in the R-X diagram can be defined.

S A SB

compare the above with the general equation for the circle

Basic Application Example of a Magnitude Comparator


Let V and I be the voltage and current input to the

relay, and the inputs to the magnitude comparator be


where Zc is the relay setting

For a magnitude comparator, the characteristic is determined by

Mho unit derived from a magnitude comparator