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Understanding SGBV

Ground Rules
Turn off cell phones

Respect timestart on time, end on time Be respectful of other participants and the facilitators Talk loud enough for all to hear Talk one at a time Maintain confidentiality Participate!

Sexual violence . as rape, sexual assault, sexual exploitation, and sexual harassment

Gender-based violence is widely used as a synonym for violence against women and girls

Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV), in its various forms, is found in communities around the world, cutting across class, race, age, religious and national boundaries.

Name Game

Some Figures source gender toolkit

Women constitute more than half the worlds population but earn one-tenth of the worlds income and own less than one-hundredth of the worlds property. Women constitute two-thirds of the illiterate adults in the world, and this fact has remained unchanged for the past two decades.

On average, women represent only 17% of the lawmakers in parliaments around the world. One in three women will suffer from sexual and gender based violence during her lifetime

Assumptions or misconceptions: There are many popular myths about rape and sexual assault.. Unfortunately, these myths encourage a false sense of security. Additionally, many victims blame themselves for being attacked instead of seeing rape as a social problem.

For Example: Nice girls dont get raped The underlying foundation of all rape myths is that RAPE IS SEX, whereas rape and other sexual assaults are crimes of VIOLENCE.

Specific forms of Gender Based Violence

Domestic/Family Violence Harmful Cultural Practices Child Abuse and Violence Sexual Exploitation and Abuse

Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) defined Violence against Women as:
any act that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private

It also specified the following types of violence against women: (a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, nonspousal violence and violence related to exploitation; (b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution; (c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.

Domestic Violence or Family Violence refers to violence and abuse committed by an intimate partner ( or spouse) against the other intimate partner, or violence and abuse committed by one family member against another family member.

Harmful Practices that constitute GBV

Female Genital Mutilation Honor Killing Dowry Violence Child Marriage Male Child Preference and Infanticide

includes procedures that intentionally, partially or completely remove external female genital organs for non-medical reasons. An estimated 100 to 140 million girls and women worldwide are currently living with the consequences of FGM.

Honour Killing typically involves the practice of killing a daughter, sister, wife or other female family member who is believed to have dishonoured the family whether by being the victim of rape, committing adultery, having pre-marital sex or eloping with a man who is not approved by the family.

Dowry Violence affects brides who are unable to pay the high "price" to marry, and are subsequently punished at the hands of their inlaws or their own husbands. Child Marriage is the practice of marrying a child to an adult, typically a young girl before she is age 18 to an adult male.

Male Child Preference and Infanticide refers to practices rooted in preference for the male child, often leading to neglect of daughters. Female children may receive reduced parental care and lesser investment in their development, which can have extreme consequences, particularly in settings where resources are scarce.

In some cases, preference for a son may lead to selective abortion or female infanticide.

Child Abuse and Violence

The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as anyone who is under 18 years of age Child abuse and violence can include: Physical violence corporal punishment Sexual exploitation and abuse Deprivation, lack of access and discrimination

Male child preference and infanticide Child marriage Child labour and human trafficking FGM Child Soldiers

The Convention on the Rights of the Child outlines how the rights of children are different from the rights of adults, due to their dependency, vulnerability and lack of emotional, physical and sexual maturity.

Sexual activity with children (persons under the age of 18) is prohibited for UN mission staff, regardless of the age of consent locally. Mistaken belief in the age of a child is not a defence.

Root Causes of Gender-based Violence

Gender inequality lower status of women and girls in relation to men and boys resulting in a patriarchal society Rigid gender roles, which portray men as violent and active, and women as dependent and

Root Causes of Gender-based Violence

Passive Impunity, or widespread tolerance of violence against women

Patriarchy: The concept of patriarchy refers to a form of social organization where men have the ultimate authority, control and power over women. A patriarchal society would be one in which both public and private spheres are dominated by men.

Rigid Gender Roles: Gender roles refer to the roles, expectations and responsibilities assigned or designated to each gender in a given context. Where these are rigid men may feel compelled to participate in, and women to accept, SGBV.

Can anyone provide an example of rigid gender roles?

What about women not being permitted to serve as religious or spiritual leaders? Or women not being permitted to work, own property or attend school?

Factors that Contribute to Genderbased Violence

Lack of Rule of Law Displacement and Economic Distress War and Armed Conflict Alcohol and Drug Abuse

Lack of Rule of Law: Where laws do not exist or cannot be enforced there exists impunity for criminals and increased risk for the vulnerable. Displacement and Economic Distress: Desperate people are vulnerable to exploitation. Displacement can greatly increase economic distress, particular in rural areas where people are dependent on farming.

War and Armed Conflict: In Bosnia-

Herzegovina and Rwanda rape was legally recognised as a weapon of war, used to terrorize, humiliate and drive out specific populations. Alcohol and Drug Use: Alcohol and drug use can lower inhibitions, increasing the levels of violence in society, including gender-based violence. Addiction and intoxication can also feed vulnerability to abuse.

Sexual Exploitation and abuse

What are some examples of sexual violence?

What sort of people might be incapable of giving consent to sexual contact?

What is Sexual Violence?

Sexual violence is any sexual act inflicted on a person victim without their own consent. Consent is an informed and freely given choice, and can only be given when the option of no is available. Consent cannot be gained through the use of physical force, manipulation, coercion, intimidation or trickery.

Consent cannot be given by a person when inebriated or unconscious. Consent gained through the exploitation of trust or a custodial relationship is not consent. People have the right to revoke consent at any time. Men and women, boys and girls, can all be victims of sexual violence.

Why sexual violence?

Means of exercising power Domination over the victim Gaining control Degrading and humiliating victims Torture, cruel, inhuman punishment War crime/genocide during armed conflict

Sexual Exploitation is any actual or attempted abuse of a position of vulnerability, differential power or trust for sexual purposes. Sexual Abuse is the actual or threatened physical intrusion of a sexual nature whether by force or under unequal or coercive conditions

This includes buying sex or using prostitution services

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WHY FOCUS ON SEXUAL EXPLOITATION & ABUSE Vulnerability of population in conflict and post-conflict environment Weakened economy/economic activity with many fighting for survival in desperate circumstances Lack of awareness of rights and obligations Unequal power relations that can be exploited

Sexuality or sexual identity generally refers to at least three basic elements of identity: sex, gender and sexual orientation. All together these identities, in combination with socio-cultural values and norms, inform our understanding of sexuality and sexual behaviour including how to dress, how to act in relation to our sexual identity, how to engage in romantic relationships, how to identify what is sexy, how to engage in intimacy, etc.


JUNE 17TH 2011 Ending Violence Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity.