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BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

THERMAL PROTECTION SYSTEM OF SPACE SHUTTLE


GUIDED BY: B.M.Rudresh Lecturer, Mechanical Dept. B.I.T. Bangalore
I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

Presented By : RAM KUMAR M


RAM KUMAR M
DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

INTODUCTION
Space shuttle is a reusable spacecraft with the wings, used for carrying out space missions. Capable of transporting astronauts and launching satellites
Columbia STS-1 (Space Transportation System) was the first space shuttle, launched by NASA on April 12, 1981.
I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

Fig1:STS-120 Launch
DEC-09

RAM KUMAR M

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Thermal Protection System

Thermal Protection system is a barrier that protects the space shuttle from searing heat of 3000 F (1649C) during its reentry into earths atmosphere It protects the space shuttle from the heat and cold of space while on orbit The obvious goal of Thermal Protection system is to keep away excessive heat from destroying or damaging the vehicle or its contents

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Why Thermal Protection system is needed ?


Aluminum structure of vehicle cannot withstand temperatures over 350F without structural failure Some high temperature metal alloys can reradiate the absorbed heat but the amount of metal required for large space shuttle would be very heavy and will be a penalty to the vehicles performance. Use of Ablative materials becomes heavy and disturbs vehicle aerodynamics.

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Re-entry heating of Space Shuttle


Orbiter re-enters the atmosphere as a blunt body by having a very high (40 degrees) angle of attack. Majority of the heating over 80% is caused by compression of the air ahead of the ultrasonic vehicle
Fig 2: Reentry heating of Space Shuttle
I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Classification of Thermal Protection System:


I. Non tile Thermal Protection System
II. Tile Thermal Protection System

I.

Non Tile Thermal Protection System /Blanket insulation


a. b. c. Advanced Felt Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) Tailorable Advanced Blanket Insulation(TABI) Durable Advanced Reusable Surface Insulation (DURAFRSI)

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering


II . Tile Thermal Protection System
Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) High temperature Reusable Surface Insulation ( HRSI ) Fibrous Refractory Composite Insulation ( FRCI) Flexible Insulation Blankets (FIB) Low-temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (LRSI) Toughened uni-piece fibrous insulation (TUFI) Felt Reusable Surface Insulation (FRSI)
I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

Discoverys under wing surfaces

Fig 3: Material distribution in Space Shuttle


DEC-09

RAM KUMAR M

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering


High-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI) Tile

Fig 4: Tile Design Specification


I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering


Excellent thermal insulator: White hot 1260 C LI-900 silica tile material is safely hand held 10 seconds after removal from high temperature Oven

Fig 5: LI- 900 Silica Tile


I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Mechanisms of Thermal Protection System

Heat sinks absorbs the heat and distributes it away from space craft Active cooling heat shields are made from temperature-resistant metal alloys that incorporates a refrigerant or cryogenic fuel circulating through them Transpiration cooling involves ejection of a fluid or gas through a porous skin into a boundary layer between the heat flux and surface Radiation cooling - much of the heat flux is reflected back toward the black body of space by a high emissivity coating Ablation changing the state of surface substrate either by melting, sublimation or thermal degradation

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Columbia Disaster and Aftermath:


On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle
Columbia was destroyed on reentry due to a failure of the Thermal Protection system .

Fig 6: Launch of Columbia


I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

Fig7: Left Bipod Ramp


RAM KUMAR M
DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Earlier Problems:
Concern of Zipper effect Concern over debris strikes

Early tile repair plans

Fig 8: Distortion of Tile


I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

New Technology:
Reusable - Shuttle has reusable Thermal Protection System
Light Weight - The winged shuttle had much more surface, so a design of lightweight TPS was crucial.

Fragile - Earlier due to the very low density, one could easily crush a
TPS tile by hand. Metallic TPS have high future potential

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Conclusions

In order to successfully achieve the space mission, one of the important feature of a space vehicle is its Protection systems. Thermal protection system is utmost important if vehicle has to re-enter earths atmosphere.

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

Thank You

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

References:
1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6.

Advanced Materials And Process Technology AMPTIAC www.amptiac.iitri.org National Aeronautics And Space Administration NASA www.nasa.gov Thermal Protection System Wikipedia www.wikipedia.org Hurwicz, H., et al (Avco Corporation), Thermal Protection Systems - Application Research of Materials Propertiesand Structural Concepts, Technical Documentary Report No. ML-TDR-64-82, January 1965. Emde, W.D., Thermal Protection System for the Space Shuttle Orbiter, Technical Report System No. 76-30 (Rockwell International Space Division) Ronald, T.M.F., Materials Related to the National Aero-Space Plane, NASP Joint Program Office Aeronautical systems Center Air Force Command, WPAFB, 1994

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

References: (Contd.)
7. Cleland J., Iannetti, F., Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle, NASA Contractor Report 4227, June 1989 8. Laub, B. Thermal Protection Technology and Facility Needs for Demanding Future Planetary Missions, NASA Ames Research Center, October 2003 9. Curry, Donald M., Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System Design and Flight Experience, NASA Technical Memorandum 104773, July 1993 10. NASA Space Shuttle Technology Conference: Dynamics and Aeroelasticity; Structures and Materials, April 12-14,1972 11. Coleman, W., Dansby, T., Sheldon, R., NASP Technology Option Six, Leading Edge Cooling, NASP-CR-1082, May 1990 12. Mountvala, A.J., Nakamura, H.H., Rechter, H.L., (Prepared for: IIT Research Institute), Development of Lightweight
I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

References: (Contd.)
13. Thermal Insulation Materials for Rigid Heat Shields, Report No. 1, June 25, 1965 14. Dumoulin, J., National Space Transportation System 1988 News Reference Manual, http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/technology 15. Swenson, L.S. Jr., Grimwood, J.M., Alexander, C.C., This New Ocean: A History of Project Mercury, NASA Special Publication - 4201 in the NASA History Series, 1989 16. Emme, E.M., Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1915-1960, NASA, 1961 pp. 77-88 17. Grimwood, J.M., Strowd, F., History of the Jupiter Missile system, History and Reports Control Branch, U.S. Army Ordinance Missile Command, July 1962

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

References: (Contd.)
18. Reentry Technology: Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator, European Space Agency Directorate of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, http://www.estec.esa.nl/spaceflight/index.htm 19. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center: Aerospace Success Story: Marshall Convergent Coating Development, 1994 20. Pike, J., Bombs for Beginners, Federation of American Scientists, http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/missile 21. Technology Its Underlying Weapons of Mass Destruction, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, December 1993 22. Clark, R.D., Mullaly, J.R., Wallace, T.A., Wiedeman, K.E., Emittance/Catalysis/Oxidation Coatings for Titanium- Aluminide Intermetallic Alloys, NASP-TM-1005, June 1989
I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

References: (Contd.)

23. Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System Processing Assessment, Appendix A Overview of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System, May 1995, Michael P. Gordon, TPS Orbiter Engineering, Materials & Processes, Rockwell Florida Operations D/830 http://ihm.arc.nasa.gov/repair/shuttle_report/a1.html 24. Bruner, W.W. III, National Security Implications of Inexpensive Space Access, School of Advanced Air Power Studies Air University, Maxwell AFB, AL 1996 25. Sharp, John R., Ablation Modeling of Ares-I Upper Stage Thermal Protection System Using Thermal Desktop, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, November 2004 26. Anderson, John D., Hypersonic and High-Temperature Gas Dynamics 27. Regan, Frank J. Dynamics of Atmospheric Re-Entry
RAM KUMAR M
DEC-09

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

References: (Contd.)

28. Berlin, J.J and Cummings, R.M., Fifty Years of Hypersonics: Where Weve Been, Where Were Going, Progress in Aerospace Engineering 29. Zoby, E. Vincent, Aeroheating Design Issues for Reusable Launch Vehicles A Perspective, NASA Langley Research Center, July 2004 30. Monti, R. Aerothermodynamic Study of an Advanced Thermal Protection System, University of Naples, 2003 31. Knight, Norman F., Assessment of Technologies for the Space Shuttle ExternalTank Thermal Protection System and Recommendations for Technology Improvement, General Dynamics, Chantilly, Virginia, August 2004 32. Laub, B. Thermal Protection Technology and Facility Needs for Demanding Future Planetary Missions, NASA Ames Research Center, October 2003
RAM KUMAR M
DEC-09

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

BANGALORE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Mechanical Engineering

References: (Contd.)

33. Cowart, K., TCAT A Tool For Automated Thermal Protection System Design, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, September 2000. 34. KO, William L., Finite-Element Reentry Heat-Transfer Analysis of Space Shuttle Orbiter, Ames Research Center, Edwards, California, 1986. 35. Padilla, Jose f., Assessment of Rarified Hypersonic Aerodynamics Modeling of Windtunnel Data, University of Michigan, Michigan, 48109 36. Pulsonetti, Maria V., Prediction of STS-107 Hypervelocity Flow Fields about the Shuttle Orbiter with Various Wing Leading Edge Damage, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, April 2003 37. Miniature Sensor Technology Integration http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/nssrm/initiatives/msti.htm

I SEMESTER M.Tech. MACHINE DESIGN Batch 09-11

RAM KUMAR M

DEC-09