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Other Teaching Models

Other Curriculum Models

Tactical Games (used in PE 279)

Teaching games for understanding (TGFU)

Personalized system for instruction Jigsaw SPARK Developmental Model* Humanistic education* Conceptually based education* Personally Meaningful Education* Social responsibility* Cognitive integration* Cultural studies* * - not discussed in this course

Tactical Games (similar to TGFU)

When do we get to play?

Cleverly uses student interest in the game itself to promote skill development and tactical knowledge. In essence, students are playing the game as they work on skills and tactics (bait and switch) Based on game-forms

Game forms are game like tasks which function as bridge between skills and game itself.

Tactical Games

Focus is on teaching offensive and defensive tactics

This includes positioning, starts and restarts You may also use this model to teach basic skills

Soccer: dribbling, passing, headers, etc

Steps in a Tactical Approach Lesson

1. Game (game-form or full-game) 2. Questions (class discussion) 3. Practice (teacher directed) 4. Game

Steps in a Tactical Approach Lesson


Game or game-form that emphasizes a tactical problem (challenge) before identifying and practicing skills

Use a half-speed activity or brief activity related to the sport as a warm-up


Gather students together and asks questions to focus them on a tactical problem and how to solve it

How were you defending someone in the open space (basketball); what were others doing off the ball?



Practice tasks used to develop tactical awareness, typically via teacher-centered instructional styles Game situation to reinforce the tactical problem or skill addressed earlier

The game situation is often the same game from step 1

Tactical Games

Uses deductive questions to help students solve tactical problems before each task begins.


A couple individuals are having difficulty defending their assignment. How can we give them help? Your team seems to mostly be shooting from the outside. Now the defense is focusing on defending this option. How might you diffuse this? What other examples can you give?

Examples of tactical game concepts



Interest and excitement

Students see where instruction is needed and therefore are often more receptive Can use consistent teams like sport ed Learning what to do in the game situations is just as important as skill acquisition

Knowledge as empowerment




Requires flexibility and on the spot adaptations if not focusing on predetermined tactical problems and instead focus on observables from the initial game or game-form. Can be difficult for teachers to get out of the mindset:

Warm-up, practice drills, game (same old, same old)

Levels of Tactical Complexity

You must ensure that the tactical complexity of the game matches student development

Ultimate frisbee example Asking relevant questions is the most difficult part of this model

Personalized System for Instruction


Teacher first determines the skills and knowledge necessary for participation Designs a series of learning tasks for learning those elements, typically via stations

Activities, skills, common errors, and performance criteria are all determined by the teacher

Presents tasks via a written workbook (This is quite different from a captains packet in sport ed). This frees teacher to provide more feedback. When students reach a predetermined performance level via the criteria determined by the teacher, they are assessed and allowed to move to the next task.

Personalized System for Instruction

Badminton example:

Workbook with skills on short and deep serve, three types of clears, forehand and backhand drive shots, overhead smash, and forehand and backhand drop shot. On the first day, explain principles of PSI Students begin working at their own pace, each day picking up where they left off.

The teacher clarifies skills and activities for students, observes students attaining criteria, and giving feedback.

Personalized System for Instruction

1. Short Serve

2. Long Serve

3. Forehands and Backhands

4. Drive Shots

5. Smash

5. Smash

Personalized System for Instruction

Badminton example:

Task # 3 In this task, you are going to serve short but now to a smaller area. You are going to still serve to the front half of the court. (continued) Practice in attempts of 10. Record your results. When you get a least 5 out of 10, 3 times, into one of the smaller boxes, initial and date your recording form. Then move onto the next task.
Attem -pt 3

Attem -pt 1

Attem -pt 2

Attem -pt 4

Attem -pt 5

Attem -pt 6

Attem -pt 7

Attem -pt 8

Attem -pt 9

Attem -pt 10

Jigsaw Model

Also called the peer teaching model

Students are assigned to teach a skill, combination of skills, or a strategy/tactic to their classmates.

Students take on all aspects of a lesson such as demonstrating tasks, reciting cues, giving feedback, and assessing their learners (peer assessment is not admissible as grades).

They are grade according to a rubric The teacher provides resources to assist lesson development.

Jigsaw Model

The teacher should ensure quality by limiting the number of cues, clearly demonstrating the cues, providing assessments, and providing suggested learning activities. Organizational Formats

One group teaches the entire class with each group member leading instruction at different points. Each group has a leader who teaches all of the lessons in a unit.

Jigsaw Model

A variation of the jigsaw model would be to have students create a game with a pre-arranged list of equipment


Sport, Play, and Active Recreation for Kids

Goal: Put kids on the right path towards health and physical activity while they are young and before you have to CHANGE habits. Focus is a comprehensive health-related elementary physical education program Commercial product (costs $)

See Dr. Housners PPT

Closing Thoughts on PE Models

Some models are stand-alone models (primary models) meaning they can be done all year without significant modifications. My suggestion would be to have a couple primary models for your grade level but to vary instruction (keep it fresh) by using secondary models and various teaching styles.

Closing Thoughts on PE Models

Suggested Model Sequence

K-2(3) Movement exploration (inquiry)

Start off with basic concepts/skills and progress to more difficult ones (movement sequences)

3-5 Skill themes

Build basic skills, start with throw/catch for example and end with punt receiving, field goal kicking, and combinations of skills.

6-8 Sport education/adventure education/tactical games

Ideal time for adventure (personal and group growth)

9(10) Fitness education & or elective lifetime activities 10-12 Elective lifetime activities (can use a variety of models)

Closing Thoughts on PE Models

Fitness should be incorporated throughout every grade and every model. Use the secondary models as a stand-alone approach or incorporate concepts into your primary approaches (take the good, leave the bad):

Multi-activity model Tactical games Personalized system for instruction Jigsaw

Remember ~



it fun make it active make it educational