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ECU302 Digital



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Text Books for Reference
 Simon Haykin, Communication Systems, 3rd
edn., John Wiley & Sons.
 B. Sklar, Digital Communication Fundamental
and Applications,2nd Ed, Pearson Education.
 R.E. Ziemer and W.H. Tranter, Principles of
Communications, JAICO Publishing House.
 John G.Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th edn.,
McGraw Hill.
 B.P. Lathi, Modern Digital and Analog
Communication, 3rd Ed., Oxford University
 John Proakis and M. Salehi, Communication
System Engineering, Pearson

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Course Information
 Background required:
 Probability Theory and Signal Theory

 Instructor: -Office: EC209

 Office Phone :0495-228-6706
 Mobile: 91-9446930650

 E-mail: babu@nitc.ac.in

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Course Information
 Understand basic components of
digital communication systems.
 – Design optimum receivers for digital
modulation techniques.
 – Analyze the error performance of
digital modulation techniques.
 – Design digital communication
systems under given power, spectral,
and error performance constrains.
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Course Outline
 Analog-to-digital conversion: Sampling theorem,
PCM, other pulse modulation schemes.

 Review of theory of random variables and

stochastic processes.

 Introduction to Signal Space concepts.

 Detection theory: Vector channels, detection of

signals in noise, decision rules such as MAP and
maximum likelihood rules, waveform channels, error
probability of base band signals.

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Course Outline (contd.)
 Modulation Techniques: Band-pass signal
representation, noise characterization in
band-pass systems, orthogonal expansion of
signals, phase and frequency shift keying,
quadrature modulation, differential and M-
ary modulation schemes, coherent and non-
coherent receivers, correlator, matched
filter and envelop detector.

 Performance of Modulation Techniques:

Computation of the error probability for
different modulation techniques.

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Course Outline (contd.)
 Spectral Characterization: Spectral
characterization of modulation techniques,
bandwidth definitions, pulse shaping,
spectrally-efficient modulation schemes.

 Comparison of Modulation techniques:

Channel capacity theorem, maximum
information rate in a communication system,
power and spectral efficiency of modulation

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 Mid term exam 1: 15 points
 Mid term exam 2: 15 points
 Class room tutorials and Lab
assignments: 20 points
 End Semester Exam: 50 points

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Overview of Digital
 What is digital communications?
 –Short History of Digital Communications
 –Why digital vs analog
 –Impact of technology trend
 –Components of a communication system
 –Common channel types
 –General theme of digital communication

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What is Communications?

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Communications channel

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What is Analog
Communications then?

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What is Digital

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Digital came first

 In antiquity, capacity of communication channels

were very small (capacity = how much information
the channel can propagate per unit time)

 Not sufficient for analog signals i.e., voice

 Used a simple discrete alphabet to encode signals

 Hence digital communications preceded analog
 Various forms, drum beats, smoke signals,
Marconi’s spark generator, etc.

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Digital communication
 Important features of a DCS:
 Transmitter sends a waveform from a finite set
of possible waveforms during a limited time

 Channel distorts, attenuates the transmitted

signal and adds noise to it.

 Receiver decides which waveform was

transmitted from the noisy received signal

 Probability of erroneous decision is an important

measure for the system performance
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Digital versus analog
 Advantages of digital communications:
 Regenerator receiver
Original Regenerated
pulse pulse

Propagation distance
 Different kinds of digital signal are
treated identically.
Data A bit is a bit!
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Why digital vs Analog
 Presently moving away from analog towards all digital end
to end networks and links
 •Reasons
 –More digital sources of information than analog.
Computer networking, internet, voice communication at
saturated level
 –Potentially less bandwidth per unit of information
(example voice encoding)
 –Effective error correction coding, message control
 –Regenerate signal along path between tx and rx
 –Analog circuitry is finicky and therefore expensive
 –Advancement in DSP-cheaper to integrate,
sophisticated algorithms.
 Multiplexing

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Bandwidth of signal
 Baseband versus bandpass:

Baseband Bandpass
signal signal
Local oscillator

 Bandwidth dilemma:
 Bandlimited signals are not realizable!
 Realizable signals have infinite bandwidth!

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Bandwidth of signal …
 Different definition of bandwidth:
a) Half-power bandwidth a) Fractional power containment bandwid
b) Noise equivalent bandwidth b) Bounded power spectral density
c) Null-to-null bandwidth c) Absolute bandwidth


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Impact of DSP on receiver

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Components of a digital
communication link

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Components of a digital
communication link
 Signal source –source of the signal to be communicated. It may be a
data file,voice video picture etc. If the source is analog then it is
converted to digital by direct sampling of the signal. Hence the
output is a stream of digital bytes.

 Source encoder–converts the raw digital bytes into something more

palatable for transmission. Usually involves compression and

 Channel encoder–adds coding for error detection/correction and

translates the coded signal into the specific format required for the
modulator. Also adds any framing and synchronization bits and
associated physical layer messages at this stage.

 Digital Modulator–Takes the completed encoded signal and

modulates the signal appropriate for transmission. This may involve
analog up conversion to an RF carrier etc.

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Components of a digital
communication link
 Channel –The channel is the physical link between the transmitter
and the receiver. It is typically non-ideal in that the signal becomes
distorted and noisy before it appears at the receiver end.

 Digital Demodulator –this block undoes the processing applied to the

signal in the digital modulator. It may for example include an analog
down converter from an RF carrier to baseband.

 Channel decoder–this block unpacks the received frames and

extracts the coded payload content. It checks/corrects any errors
that may have occurred in the digital demodulator due to the signal
noise and distortion

 Source decoder -converts the stream of received and corrected
bytes and generates the appropriate output. This could be an analog
voice or video signal or a data file. In this course we will deal
primarily with the digital modulation and demodulator blocks as well
as how the channel affects the signal

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Noise and interference
 Wide bandwidth independent additive noise (eg.
 “Lower frequency” interference from lightning,
electrical machines etc
 Other user interference from adjacent bands
 •Hostile jamming.
 Controlled interference from multiple users on the
same channel eg. CDMA.
 Receiver self jamming –malfunction, out of tune,
not properly synchronizing etc.
 Variable channel conditions, fading shadowing etc.
(mobile radio communications)

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Types of communication
 Guided
 –Twisted pair telephone cable, PC cables
 –Coaxial cable, optical fiber, waveguide

 •Radiated
 –Acoustic
 –Point to point wireless
 –Mobile wireless
 –Satellite wireless
 –Wireless modem (eg. 802.11 wireless LAN)

 •Somewhere in between
 –free space optical
 –house electrical wiring
 –leaky coax etc)

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Brief history of digital
 Early Days
 Commercial telegraph services
 1839, W. Cooke and C. Wheatstone in England

 1844, S. Morse in US

 1951, Atlantic cable between England and France

 By 1861, 18,000km cable had laid and 5,000 km

actually worked.
 By mid-1870’s, J. Stearns and T. Edison made it
possible to transmit 2-4 telegraph signals over a
single wire

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Brief history of digital
 1876, A. G. Bell, had a fortune to file his patent for
 Major challenges were switching and long distance
 transmission
 A.B. Strowger patented an automatic dialing system
to be used from 1892 to mid-1970s.
 1900, G. Campbell and M. Pupin filed a patent of
inductive leading to make long-distance call possible
 Due to A. Fleming (England) and Lee de Forest (US),
AT&T built phone line between New York and San
 Earlang developed queuing theory

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Brief history of digital
communications: Radio
 1860’s, J.C. Maxwell (England) for Maxwell equation
 1884, MIT started world first Department of
Electrical Engineering
 1888, H. Hertz (Germany) EM radiation in lab.
 1896, G. Marconi (Italy) invented wireless signaling
 apparatus
 1901, received signal from England in Newfoundland
 Early 20th century, 3 marine time disasters
showed radio communication useful
 1909, White Star liner Republic

 1912, Titanic

 1913, Volturno

 1920s, for broadcasting

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Making the Airwaves Sing
John Fleming (1849-1945)
 1904: invents the diode;
used as a radio detector
Lee DeForest (1873-1961)
 1906: invents the audion, a
vacuum tube that both
amplifies and detects
 1910: First music broadcast
from Metropolitan Opera
House; first demonstration
of radio telephone
 1916: Operates radio station

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Scientific Genius of Radio
Edwin Howard Armstrong
 1912: Regeneration

 Exploits feedback to improve reception

sensitivity -- DeForest sues over who

invented amplification, and wins in 1928
 1918: Superheterodyne Reception

 Special mixing circuit enables higher

frequencies for radio transmission

 1921: Superregeneration

 New circuit that achieves extremely high

levels of amplification
 1933: Frequency Modulation (FM)

 Crystal clear reception possible by

encoding sound in waveform frequency

rather than amplitude
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Modern Communications
 1948, in Bell Labs.
 Shockley, Bardeen, Brattain, invented transistor

 C. Shannon, A Mathematical Theory of

 1950s
 Trans-Atlantic telephone cable

 Probability theory and stochastic processes,

after modern analysis in early 20th century

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Satellite Communications
 1957, Sputnik (Russia) into earth orbit
 1950s, J. Pierce wrote “how satellite
communication system might work”
 1960, world 1st communication satellite
Echo I
 1962, launching Telstar I, first active
communication satellite
 Communication Satellite Act in US
 Communication Satellite Corp. (COMSAT)
 1964, Intelsat

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Optical Fiber Communications
 1959-1960, laser was developed
 Can operate at high speed to transmit large
volume of data
 1966, K. Charles Kao and G.A. Kockham
proposed a clad glass fiber as waveguide
 1970, fiber loss reached 20dB/km and I.
Hayashi etc. demonstrated successful
transmission using a semiconductor laser
 Actual installation in mid-1970
 10G bps is commercially possible through

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Data Networks: Internet
 L. Kleinrock
 1961, proposal for Ph.D dissertation “Information Flow in
Large Communication Nets” at MIT
 1964, a book “Communication Nets”
 1964,
 P. Baran “On Distributed Communications”
 D.W. Watts, similar to Baran, using packet and packet
 ARPANet: The First Internet!
 1967: Connect computers at key research sites across the US
using pt-to-pt telephone lines
 Interface Message Processors (IMPS)

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ARPANet Becomes Internet

Robert Kahn and Vint Cerf

 1973-5: ARPANet + Packet Radio Net + Satellite
Net leads to a “network of networks”: TCP/IP
 1981: Berkeley UNIX first open implementation
of the TCP/IP protocols
 1983: Extended to CSNet and then NSFNet

 1990s: NSF privatizes the Network; ISPs take

 1993-4: The World Wide Web takes off

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General Theme of Digital
Communications Engineering
 Communicate information from a transmitter to a
receiver at a rate which is commensurate with
the information type and user requirements.
 Minimize channel resources required to do this
(eg. bandwidth)
 Minimize interference to other users (eg. Tx.
power, filtering)
 Maximize robustness to sources of interference
 Robustness also with respect to varied operating
conditions (eg. fading mobile wireless)
 Minimize cost/complexity of components
 Comply with standards for universal adaptation
of communications equipment
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