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Faculty of Technology, AAU

Email- gstafese@yahoo.com

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Computer Aided Design - CAD

assist in the creation, modification, analysis and optimization

of a design.

application program facilitating engineering functions in design

process can be classified as CAD software.

mechanical assembly, an architectural structure, an

electronic circuit, a building layout etc.

The greatest benefits CAD systems are that they can save

considerable time and reduce errors caused by otherwise having to

redefine the geometry of the design from scratch every

time it is needed.

Introduction

Computer Aided Manufacturing - CAM

manage and control the manufacturing operations

through computer interface with the plant’s production

resources.

control (NC). This is a technique of using

programmed instructions to control a machine tool

that cuts, mills, grinds, punches or turns raw stock

into a finished part.

of robots. Process planning is also a target of

computer automation.

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Computer Aided Engineering – CAE

CAE technology uses a computer system to analyze the

functions of CAD-created products, allowing designers to

simulate and study how the product will behave so that

the design can be refined and optimized.

analyses. For example, kinematic analysis programs to

determine motion paths and linkage velocities in

mechanisms. Dynamic analysis programs can be used to

determine loads and displacements in complex

assemblies such as automobiles.

Finite Element Method (FEM).This approach can be used to

determine stress, deformation, heat transfer, magnetic

field distribution, fluid flow, and other continuous field

problems that are often too tough to solve with any other

approach.

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

At present the CAD/CAM/CAE development focused on

efficient and fast integration and automation of various

elements of design and manufacturing along with the

development of new algorithms. There are numerous

CAD/CAM/CAE packages available for direct usages that are user

friendly and very proficient. Here are some of the commercial

packages in the present market

Ø AutoCAD, CADKEY, DELCAM, SolidEdge and SolidWorks are

some low end and easy to use CAD softwares.

Ø Unigraphics, Pro-Engineer, CATIA and I-DEAS are higher

order modeling and designing software that are costlier but more

efficient. The other capabilities of these software are

manufacturing and analysis

Ø Ansys, Abaqua, Nastran, Fluent, and CFX are packages

mainly used for analysis of structures and fluids. Different

software are used for different purposes.

Ø ALIBRE, Cyber-Cut and CollabCAD are software which are

focusing on collaborative design. Collaborative design is

computer aided designing for multiple users working at the same

time

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Manufacturing

Figure 1- A Process

diagram representing the product realization process –

CAD/CAM by Ibrahim Zeid

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

History of CAD/CAM

In 1960’s

ü Ivan Sutherland (1962) –sketchpad- picture can be displayed and

manipulate on the screen CRT

ü Simple 2D graphics

ü Mechanism design satisfying several geometric constraints

ü Design parameter optimization

In 1970

ü Computer drafting era

ü Wire-frame modeling

ü Free-form surface modeling (mainframe)

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

In 1980’s (The intensive years of research in CAD/CAM)

Early 1980’s

ü CAD/CAM integration

ü Mechanical feature recognition from CAD database

Mid 1980’s

ü Specialized, feature-based CAD system (mini & macro companies)

ü Feature-based design and parametric modeling

Late 1980’s

ü Design for manufacturing

ü Design for automate assembly

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

In 1990’s

ü Concurrent engineering design

ü Integrated design, analysis & optimization

ü Virtual-prototyping ( workstation & high-end PC)

ü Research

ü Wavelet in CAGD (computer aided geometric design)

ü Surface in partial differential equation from which may be

represented by b-spline and & Beizer

ü Geometric modeling algorithm and generation of 3D entities

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

tools

CAD/CAM system

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

tools

Fig 3 Implementation of a

typical CAM Process on

CAD/CAM

CAD/CAM

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

CAD/CAM/CAE Hardware

Majority of these systems utilizes open hardware architecture

and standard operating systems

the CAD/CAM industry relies upon the giant-purpose

computer companies and smaller firms that specialize in

engineering workstations.

Thus users can network their CAD/CAM systems to other

compute systems as well as hardwire them to various

manufacturing cells and facilities

These systems are based on the workstation concept, such a

concept provides both single-user and time sharing

environments [ i.e, the systems are based on distributed (stand-

alone) but networked (linked) environment]

dedicated to numerical computations.

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

CAD/CAM/CAE Software

The investigation of existing CAD/CAM/CAE software in general

reveals that it has common characteristics regardless of the

hardware it runs on.

programming language; FORTRAN, Pascal, C or C++. It is usually

hardware-dependent and seems different to the user from

conventional software due to the user interface.

of the software determines its quality, speed and ease of

information retrieval.

3D, associative, centralized and integrated database. A

database which is rich in information needed for both the

design, manufacturing and other down stream applications.

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

CAD/CAM/CAE Software (cont.)

The centralized concept implies that any change in or additions

to geometric model in one of its views is automatically

reflected in the existing views or any views that may be defined

later

The integrated concept implies that a geometric model of an

object can be utilized in all various phase of a product cycle.

The associativity concept implies that input information can

be retrieved in various forms.

Data Structure

a) Data structure base on edges

set of edges A,B,C,D,E,F,G

connectivity vertices 1(A&B), 2(B&C), 3(C&G)etc.

b) Data structure based on vertices

set of vertices 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8

Edge information A(1&4), B(1&2), C(2&3)etc.

c) Data structure based on blocks

set of blocks B1, B2

set operator UNION

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

CAD/CAM/CAE Software (cont.)

Databases

The objective of a database is to collect and maintain data in a

central storage so that it will be available for operations and

decision-making. The advantage that accrue from having centralized

control of data is many fold;

4. Eliminates redundancy- this is important for integrated CAD/CAM

functions and CIM applications. The data should be rich enough to

support all various phases of product development

5. Enforces standard (e.g., following dimensioning and tolerance

standards)

6. Maintain integrity (i.e., ensuring its accuracy and lack of

database integrity that can result in inputting inconsistent data)

7. Balance conflicting requirements-

8. Apply security restriction (i.e., access to sensitive data and

projects can be checked and controlled)

CAD/CAM databases must be able to store pictorial data in addition to

textual and alphanumeric data typically stored in conventional

databases

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Software modules

There are considerable number of software packages for the various

types of CAD/CAM/CAE systems. Each package has its own

strength and uniqueness and usually targeted toward a

specific market and group of users. Such as for mechanical,

electrical, and architectural users. Likewise the existing systems has

the following generic structure and common modules, including:

3. Operating system module –utility and system command that

deals with accounts and files

4. Graphic module- to perform various geometric modeling and

construction functions

5. Applications module –applications such as mass property

calculations, assembly analysis, tolerance analysis, FEM,

mechanism analysis, animation and simulation, process planning,

NC, CIM, robot simulation and group technology.

6. Programming module-provides users with system dependent

and standard programming languages for graphical s well as for

analysis and calculation purposes

7. Communication module –serves the purpose of translating

databases between CAD/CAM systems using graphic standards

such as IGES, STEP etc.

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

A DBMS is defined as the software are to use and/or to modify

data stored in a database. The DBMS forms a layer of software

between the physical database itself (i.e. the stored data) and

the users of this database.

different from those required by commercial data processing

application.Therefore the current DBMS are originally designed

to support the iterative nature of design and manufacturing .

CA

D

functions

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Databases (cont.)

The Object-oriented database seems to be ideal for CAD/CAM

applications. However hybrid database models are considered

best .

OORDBM seems to be ideal for CAD/CAM applications since many

of the following functional requirements can be met with these

model including;

4. Multiple engineering application from conceptual design to

manufacturing

5. Dynamic modification and extension of database and its

associativity

6. The iterative nature of design (i.e., the CAD/CAM DBMS

must support the tentative, iterative, and evolutionary nature of

the design process

7. Concurrent and multiple users must be supported from the

database

8. Easy access (i.e., application programs requiring data from

CAD/CAM should not require extensive knowledge of the data

base to extract data needed). This is important in customizing

CAD/CAM systems

9. Free design sequence, etc.

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Coordinate systems

Three types of coordinate systems are needed in order to input,

store and display model geometric and graphics. These are;

3. The Working Coordinate System (WCS)

4. The Model Coordinate System (MCS) , and

5. The Screen Coordinate System (SCS)

MCS – the reference space of the model with respect to which all

the model generated geometrical data is stored. This is the

only coordinate system that the software recognizes

when storing or retrieving geometrical information in or

from a model database. In a part it describes the geometry

of the surfaces and edges, while in an assembly it describes the

locations and orientations of the assembly members.

WCS- A convenient user defined system that facilitates the

geometric construction.

SCS - A two dimensional coordinate system that describes

locations in a design window. When the user zoom the view, the

SCS follows the display of the model

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

User Interface

A collection of commands that the user can use to interact with

a particular CAD/CAM system. The user interface consists of two

parts : user communication and database communication.

user follows to achieve specific goal.

retrieved from the database

Discussion point

Compare AutoCAD with CATIA V5 R16 and discuss in

particular with the user interface, DBMS, coordinate

systems .

OVERVIEW OF CAD/CAM What is CAD?

large range of activities.

computer science (or software) techniques in

engineering design. At one end when we talk of

modeling, it encompasses the following:

designing products

Numerical method, optimizations etc.

2D/3D drafting

3D modeling for visualization

Modeling curves, surfaces, solids, mechanism,

assemblies, etc.

OVERVIEW OF CAD/CAM

The models thus developed are first visualized on display

monitors using a variety of techniques including wire frame

display, shaded image display, hidden surface removed display

and so on.

Once the designer is satisfied, these models are then used for

various types of analysis / applications. thus, at the other

end it includes a number of analysis activities. These could be:

Stress (or deflection) analysis, i.e. numerical methods

meant for estimating the behavior of an artifact with respect

to these parameters. It includes tools like the Finite Element

Method (FEM).

Simulation of actual use

Optimization

Other applications like

CAD/CAM integration

Process planning

OVERVIEW OF CAD/CAM

These are activities which normally use models developed

using one or more of the techniques mentioned above. These

activities are often included in other umbrellas like CAM or

CAE.

activities. They all use CAD models and often the kind of

application they have to be used in determines the kind of a

model to be developed.

modeling techniques followed by some applications,

specifically CAM.

Thus there are three aspects to CAD.

Modeling

Display/ Visualization

Applications

OVERVIEW OF CAD/CAM

MODELING

Modeling typically includes a set of activities like

Defining objects

co-ordinate systems

Modification of existing definition (editing)

DISPLAY / VISUALIZATION : Displaying the model requires the

following:

Mapping objects onto screen coordinates: Models are

typically made in a model coordinate system. this could be the

world coordinate system, or a coordinate system local to the

object. these coordinate systems are typically three dimensional in

nature. To display the object on a 2D screen, the object

coordinates need to be mapped on to the 2D coordinate system of

the screen. This requires two steps:

Viewing transformations: The coordinates of the object are

transformed in a manner as if one is looking at the object through the

screen. This coordinate system is referred to as the viewing coordinate

system.

Projections: The object in the viewing coordinate system is then

projected onto the two dimensional plane of the screen.

Surface display or shading / rendering: In displaying the

objects on the screen one often likes to get a shaded display of the

object and get a good feel of the three dimensional shape of the

object. This requires special techniques to render the surface

based on its shape, lighting conditions and its texture.

Hidden line removal when multiple surfaces are displayed:

In order to get a proper feel of the three dimensional shape of an

object, one often desires that the lines / surfaces which are not

Once a model is visualized on the screen and approved by

the conceptual designer, it has to go through a number of

analysis. Some of the kinds of usage this model

might have to go through are the following:

Estimating stresses / strains / deflections in the

objects under various static loading conditions

Estimating the same under dynamic loading

conditions

Visualizing how a set of objects connected

together would move when subject to external

loading. This leads to a whole set of activities under

simulation. These activities would vary depend upon

the application the object is to be subject to.

Optimizing the objects for

Developing 2D engineering drawings of the object

Developing a process plan of the object

Manufacturing the object using NC / CNC

machines and generating the programs for these

machines so as to manufacture these objects.

Therefore the targeted of our discussion is to give you an

overview of CAD and its applications would include the

following:

CAD

2D and 3D transformations used to shift between

coordinate systems

Projection transformation used to get the object

in screen coordinate systems

Modeling of curves and surfaces

Modeling of solids

2D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

TRANSLATION

A translation is applied to an object by repositioning it

along a straight line path from one coordinate location

to another. We translate a two-dimensional point by adding

translation distances, tx and ty, to the original coordinate

position (x,y) to move the point to a new position (x',y')

vector or shift vector. Matrix representation of translation

equations in the matrix form:

2D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

SCALING

Scaling is a kind of transformation in which the size of an

object is changed. Remember the change is size does no

mean any change in shape.

This kind of transformation can be carried out for polygons by

multiplying each coordinate of the polygon by the

scaling factor. Sx and Sy which in turn produces new

coordinate of (x,y) as (x',y'). The equation would look like

or

the object is enlarged and if it is less that 1 it reduces the

size of the object. Keeping value as 1 does not changes the

object.

2D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

values of scaling factor must be kept equal.

produce incases when values for scaling factor are not

equal.

closer to origin when the values of scaling factor are less

than 1.

position while is scaling we can use a point that is

would be fixed to its position while scaling which is

commonly referred as fixed point (xf yf).

2D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

ROTATION

A two-dimensional rotation is applied to an object by

repositioning it along a circular path in the x-y plane. When we

generate a rotation we get a rotation angle (θ) and the position about

which the object is rotated (xr , yr) this is known as rotation point or

pivot point.

axis that is perpendicular to x-y plane and passes through the

pivot point. Positive values for the rotation angle define counter-

clockwise rotations about the pivot point and the negative values

rotate objects in the clockwise direction.

2D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

Suppose the pivot point be at origin, to understand the

relationship between angular and coordinate points of

original and transformed position lets look at the figure

below:

Here,

r - constant distance of the point from the origin

Φ - original angular position of the point from the

horizontal

θ - rotation angle

we can express the transformation by the following equations

2D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

The same equations we can write in matrix form as

Hence it is

2D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

REFLECTION

Reflection is nothing more than a rotation of the

object by 180o. In case of reflection the image formed is

on the opposite side of the reflective medium with the same

size. Therefore we use the identity matrix with positive and

negative signs according to the situation respectively.

REFLECTION ABOUT A ORIGIN

When both the x and y coordinates are flipped then the reflection

produced is relative to an axis that is perpendicular to x-y plane

and that passes through the coordinate origin. This

transformation is referred as a reflection relative to

coordinate origin and can be represented using the matrix

below.

Reflection about any line y= mx + c can be accomplished with a

combination of translate-rotate-reflect transformations. Steps are

HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATES

We have seen that basic transformations can be expressed in

matrix form. But many graphic application involve

sequences of geometric transformations. Hence we need a

general form of matrix to represent such transformations. This

can be expressed as:

Where

P and P' - represent the row vectors.

T1 - is a 2 by 2 array containing multiplicative factors.

T2 - is a 2 element row matrix containing translation terms.

geometric transformations into a single matrix representation by

expanding the 2 by 2 matrix representations to 3 by 3 matrices.

multiplications, providing that we also expand the matrix

representations for coordinate positions.

HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATES

To express any 2D transformations as a matrix

multiplication, we represent each Cartesian coordinate

position (x,y) with the homogeneous coordinate triple

(xh,yh,h), such that

can also be written as (h.x, h.y, h). For 2D geometric

transformations, we can choose the homogeneous

parameter h to any non-zero value.

Thus, there is an infinite number of equivalent

homogeneous representations for each coordinate point

(x,y). A convenient choice is simply to h=1. Each 2D

position is then represented with homogeneous

coordinates (x,y,1).

matrix formulations of 3D viewing transformations.

HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATES

Expressing positions in homogeneous coordinates allows

us to represent all geometric transformation equations as

matrix multiplications. Coordinates are represented with

three element row vectors and transformation operations

are written as 3 by 3 matrices.

or

Similarly for Rotation transformation, we have

or

HOMOGENEOUS COORDINATES

Finally for Scaling transformation, we have

or

2D composite transformation

NTRODUCTION

With the matrix representations of the transformations,

we can set up a matrix for any sequence of

transformations as a composite transformation matrix by

calculating the matrix product of the individual

transformations.

a coordinate position P, the final transformed location P' is

calculated as:

Where,

2D composite transformation

TRANSLATION

In translation, an object is displayed a given distance and

direction from its original position. If the displacement is

given by the vector the new object point

P'(x',y') can be found by applying the transformation Tv to

P(x,y)

Where And

2D composite transformation

ROTATION

A generalized rotation about an arbitrary point (a,b) can

be obtained by performing the following transformations

3. Translate the object so that the pivot-point position is

moved to coordinate origin.

4. Rotate the object about the coordinate origin.

5. Translate the object so that the pivot point is returned

to its original position

2D composite transformation

where,

2D composite transformation

SCALING

The animation illustrates a transformation sequence to

produce scaling with respect to a selected fixed position

(a,b) using a scaling function that can only scale rela?tive

to the coordinate origin.

3. Translate object so that the fixed point coincides with

the coordinate origin.

4. Scale the object with respect to the coordinate origin.

5. Use the inverse translation of step 1 to return the

object to its original position.

2D composite transformation

The composite matrix for this sequence is obtained as:

3D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

In three-dimensional homogeneous coordinate

representation, when a point P is translated to P' with

coordinated (x,y,z) and (x',y',z') can be represented in

matrix form as:

Where,

3D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

SCALING

Scaling an object in three-dimensional is similar to scaling an

object in two-dimensional. Similar to 2D scaling an object

tends to change its size and repositions the object relative to

the coordinate origin. If the transformation parameter are

unequal it leads to deformation of the object by changing its

dimensions. The perform uniform scaling the scaling factors

should be kept equal i.e.

reflection.

if the value of Sx, Sy or Sz be replaced by -1 it will return

the reflection of the object against the standard plane

whose normal would be either x axis, y axis or z axis

respectively.

3D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

ROTATION

Unlike 2D, rotation in 3D is carried out around any line. The

most simple rotations could be around coordinate axis. As in

2D positive rotations produce counter-clockwise rotations.

Rotation in term of general equation is expressed as

Where,

R = Rotation

Rotation matrix when an object is rotated about X axis can be

Matrix

expressed as:

3D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

Rotation matrix when an object is rotated about Y axis

can be expressed as:

can be expressed as:

3D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

GENERAL 3-D ROTATION

Rotation in three dimension is more complex than the rotation

in two dimensions. Three dimensional rotations require the

prescription of an angle of rotation and an axis of rotation. The

canonical rotations are defined when one of the positive x,y,z

coordinate axis is chosen as the axis of rotation. then the

construction of rotation transformation proceeds just like that

of a rotation in two dimensions about the origin.

3D GEOMETRIC TRANSFORMATION

Steps to be performed

2. Translate origin to A1

1. Rotate to bring vector in yz plane

3D projections

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION

The simplest of the Parallel projections is the orthographic

projection, commonly used for engineering drawings.

They accurately show the correct or true size and shape

of single plane face of an object. orthographic projections

are projections onto one of the coordinate planes x=0,

y=0, z=0.

The matrix for projection onto the z plane is

Consequently, the effect of the transformation is to set

the z coordinate of a position vector to zero.

3D projections

Similarly, the matrices for projection on to x=0 and y=0

planes are

and

3D projections

AXONOMETRIC PROJECTION

A single orthographic projection fails to illustrate the

general three-dimensional shape of an object.

Axonometric projections overcome this limitation.

the object using rotations and translations, such that at

least three adjacent faces are shown.

at infinity on to one of the coordinate plane unless a face

is parallel to the plane of projection, an axonometric

projection does not show its true shape. However, the

relative lengths of originally parallel lines remain

constant, i.e., parallel lines are equally foreshortened.

3D projections

Foreshortening factor-it is the ratio of the projected

length of a line to its true length

Types of axonometric projections -

1.Trimetric

2.Dimetric

3.Isometric

projection is the most restrictive

Trimetric Projection - A trimetric projection is formed

by arbitrary rotations in arbitrary order, about any or all

of the coordinate axes, followed by parallel projection

on to the z=0 plane. The wide variety of trimetric

projections precludes giving a general equation for

these ratios

For any specific trimetric projection, the foreshortening

ratios are obtained by applying transformation matrix to the

unit vector along the principal axis specifically,

untransformed x, y and z axes respectively, and [T] is the

concatenated trimetric projection matrix. The

foreshortening factors along the projected principal axes

are then

3D projections

OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS-

oblique projections illustrate the general 3 dimensional shape

of the object. However only faces of the object parallel to the

plane of projection are shown at there true size and shape,

that is angles and lengths are preserved for these faces only.

In fact ,the oblique projection of these faces is equivalent to

an orthographic front view.

TYPES OF OBLIQUE PROJECTIONS-

1.Cavalier

2.Cabinet

Cavalier Projection-A cavalier projection is obtained when

the angle between oblique projectors and the plane of

projection is 45 degree. In a cavalier projection the

foreshortening factors for all three principal direction are

equal. The resulting figure appears too thick. A cabinet

projection is used to correct this deficiency.

Cabinet projection- An oblique projection for which the

foreshortening factor for edges perpendicular to the plane of

projection is one half is called a cabinet projection.

3D projections

STANDARD PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

A perspective transformation is the transformation from one

three space in to another three space.

In contrast to the parallel transformation , in

perspective transformations parallel lines converge,

object size is reduced with increasing distance from

the center of projection, and non uniform

foreshortening of lines in the object as a function of

orientation and the distance of the object from the

center of projection occurs.

All of these effects laid the depth perception of the human

visual system, but the shape of the object is not preserved.

foreshortening and vanishing points .

and lengths appear smaller as there distance from

the center of projection increases.

3D projections

The illusion that certain sets of parallel lines appear to

meet at a point is another feature of perspective

drawings. These points are called vanishing points .

apparent intersection of lines parallel to one of the

three x,y or z axis.

the number of principal axes interested by the view plane

Perspective Anomalies

1.Perspective foreshortening- The farther an object is

from the center of projection ,the smaller it appears

2.vanishing Points- Projections of lines that are not

parallel to the view plane (i.e. lines that are not

perpendicular to the view plane normal) appear to meet

at some point on the view plane.

This point is called the vanishing point. A vanishing point

corresponds to every set of parallel lines. Vanishing points

corresponding to the three principle directions are

referred to as "Principle Vanishing Points (PVPs)".

these are at infinity (that is parallel lines in that direction

continue to appear parallel on the projection plane), we

get 1 or 2 PVP perspective projection.

Transformation Matrix for Standard Perspective

Projection

View plane at

or

PERSPECTIVE PROJECTION

Similarly,

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Geometric representation

Parametric

X = x(u), y=y(u)

Non – parametric

Explicit

y= f(x)

Implicit

f(x,y)=0

Eg. Circle

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Each form has its own advantages and disadvantages, depending

on the application for which the equation is used

Non parametric (explicit) form y= f(x) – has only one y value

for each x value , and it can not represent closed or multiple –

valued curves such as circle.

Non-parametric (implicit) form, [i.e., f(x,y)=0 - ax2 + bxy +

cy2+dx+ey+f=0]

Adv. can produce several type of curve- by setting different

coefficients .

Disadvantages

one can not be sure which variable to choose as the

independent variable.

non-parametric elements are axis dependent, so the

choice of coordinate system affects the ease of using the

elements and calculating their properties

they represent unbounded geometry e.g. Ax + By + C

= 0, define an infinite line

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Parametric representation

Express relationship for the x, y, and z coordinates not in term of

each other but of one or more independent variable (parameter)

Advantages:

offer more degrees of freedom for controlling the shape

(nonparametric) y = ax3+ bx2+ cx + d

(parametric) x = eu3+ fu2 + gu + d

y = eu3+ fu2 + gu + h

transformations can be performed directly on

parametric equations

parametric forms readily handle infinite slopes

without breaking down computationally

dy/dx = (dy/du)/ (dx/du)

completely separate the roles of the dependent and

independent variable

easy to express in the form of vectors and matrices

inherently bounded

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Parametric curve

Use parameter to relate coordinate x and y (2D)

Parameter - t(time) - [ x(t), y(t)]as the position of the

particle at time t ]

x(t)= x1 + (x2-x1)t

y(t)= y1 + (y2-y1)t

Parameter t is varied from 0 to 1 to define all point along the

line

When t=0, the point is at “a”, as t increases toward 1, the

point moves moves in a straight line

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Parametric curve (conic section)

Conic sections –the curves/ portions of the curves

obtained by cutting a cone with a plane

The section curve may be circle, ellipse, parabola

or hyperbola

centered at the origin

x(t)=RCos θ = RCos(2πt)

y(t)=RCos θ = RSin(2πt)

0≤t≤ 1

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Circle with center at (xc, yc)

x(t)=RCos(2πt) + Xc

y(t)=RSin(2πt) + Xc

Ellipse

x(t)=aCos(2πt) + Xc

y(t)=bSin(2πt) + Xc

Hyperbola

x(t)=asec(t)

y(t)=btan(t)

Parabola

x(t)=at2

y(t)=2at

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Tangent vector and tangent line

Tangent vector – vector tangent to the shape of curve at a given

point

Tangent line – the line that contains the tangent vector

F(t)=(x(t), y(t), z(t))

Tangent vector

F’(t)=(x’(t), y’(t), ‘z(t))

Where x’(t)=dx/dt, y’(t)=dy/dt, z’(t)=dz/dt,

Magnitude of the vector / length

If vector V=(a, b, c)

Unit vector - Uv= V/|V|

Tangent line at t is either

F(t) + uF’(t) or F(t) + u(F’(t)/|F’(t)|) if prefer unit

vector

u is a parameter for line

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Slope of the curve at any point can be obtained from

tangent vector

Tangent vector at t=(x’(t), y’(t))

Slope at t=dy/dx = y’t)/x’(t)

Curvature

Curvature =1/r r radius

The curvature at u, k(u), can be computed as follows :

k(u)= |f’(u) X f’’(u) | / |f’(u)|3

curve shapes (beyond conic) and interactive

Bounding curves for turbine blades, ship hulls etc.

Curve of intersection between surfaces

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

program

representaion

symoblic

numerical

approximation

may be either:

Functional – does work

Technical – it is efficient, does it meet certain benchmark

or standard

Aesthetic – does it look right (subjective)

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Complex curves are typically represented

a series of simple curve (each defined by a

single equation) piece together at their endpoints

(piecewise construction)

Equation for simpler curves based on control points

(data points used to define curve)

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Interactive design consists of the following steeps

2. Lay down the initial control points

3. Use the algorithm to generate the curves

4. If the curve is satisfactory, stop

5. Adjust some control points

6. Go to step 2

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

General curve shape may be generated using

method of

Interpolation (also known as curve fitting) , the

curve will pass through control points

Approximation – curve will pass near control

points may interpolate the start and end points.

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Curve is defined by multiple segments (linear)

segment joints known as KNOTS

Requires too many data points for most shape

Representation not flexible enough to editing

Segments join at KNOTS

Most common polynomial used is cubic (3rd order)

Segment shape controlled by two or more adjacent control

points

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Knot points

Location where segments join referred to as

knots

Knots may or may not coincide with control

points in interpolating curves

Continuity conditions

point continuity (no slope or curvature

restriction/no gap)

tangent continuity (same slope at knot)

Curvature continuity (same slope and curvature at

knots)

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Continuity – Cn

C0 continuity – continuity of endpoint only or continuity of

position

C1continuity is tangent continuity or first derivative of

position

C2 continuity is curvature continuity or second derivative

of position

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Interpolation curves

typically posses curvature continuity

shape defined by

Endpoint and control point location

tangent vector at knots

curvature at knots

Approximation techniques

• Developed to permit greater design flexibility

in the generation of free form curves

• common methods in modern CAD systems,

Bezeir,

B-Spline, NURBS

• Employ control points (set of vertices that

approximate the curve)

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Approximation techniques

Curves do not pass directly through points

(except start and end)

Intermediate points affect shape as if exerting a

‘pull’ on the curve

Allow user to set shape by ‘Pulling’ out curve

using control point location

Example – Beizer curve

Introduction-CAD/CAM/CAE

Modeling and viewing

It is concerned with the complete representation of an object

that includes both graphical and non-graphical information.

Objects can be classified into three types from a geometric

point of views i.e., two dimensional, two and half dimensional,

and three dimensional.

thicknesses in directions perpendicular to the planes of the cross

sections.

points and then connecting them with the proper types of entities

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