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NO AIR, NO LIFE

5.1 The Composition Of Air


1. Air is everywhere around us

2. Air is colourless that we cannot see it


3. We can feel it when it moves wind (angin) 4. All living things need air in order to live 5. The Earth is covered by a layer of air called atmosphere

6. Air is a matter because it occupies space and has mass

7. The composition of air is not fixed. It changes according to: - the time of day - the environment condition - human activities

AIR
Gases Other Components
Water Vapour

Nitrogen Oxygen

Dust

Carbon Dioxide

Microorganisms

Inert Gases

Carbon Dioxide 0.03% Oxygen

Inert gas 0.97 %

21%

Nitrogen 78%

Percentage Of Gases In Air

Oxygen

Nitrogen

Carbon Dioxide

Inert Gases - helium - argon - neon

element

element

compound

element

Mixture Of Gases

AIR

Oxygen

Nitrogen - Fertilizer

Carbon Dioxide

- Respiration - Combustion

- Photosynthesis

- extinguishes
both a glowing or burning splinter

- Released during
respiration and combustion

HOMEWORK

Textbook Review Questions (pg 49, 50, 51)

The Properties Of Oxygen And Carbon Dioxide


1 Carbon Dioxide Colour, taste Colourless, tasteless and and smell odourless Effect on red No changes Blue Red and blue litmus paper Neutral gas Acidic gas pH value 7 5.5 Solubility in Slightly soluble Slightly soluble water Property Oxygen

3 4

Oxygen 5 Solubility in sodium hydroxide solution 6 Solubility in Alkaline Pyrogallol solution 7 Effect on a burning wooden splinter Not soluble

Carbon Dioxide Highly soluble

Highly soluble Splinter burns more brightly. Oxygen supports combustion

--Splinters goes out. Carbon Dioxide does not support combustion

Oxygen 8 Effect on lime water 9 Effect on Hydrogen Carbonate indicator 10 Density No changes. Remains clear No changes

Carbon Dioxide Turns cloudy / chalky Red Yellow

Little denser than air

Denser than air

HOMEWORK

Textbook Exercise 5.1 (pg 56)

Activity 5.1 (pg 54)

Investigating the percentage of oxygen in the air

Textbook pg : 54

Experiment Report

4.7.2007

TITLE

: Investigating the percentage of oxygen in the air

Objective : To determine the percentage of oxygen in the air

Apparatus and Materials : Candle, basin, plasticine, marker pen, gas jar, and gas jar stand

Procedure: 1. The apparatus was set up as shown in figure 5.2 2. The water level was marked in the gas jar with a waterproof marker pen 3. The gas jar was marked to divide the air volume above the water level into 5 equal parts (figure 5.3) 4. The candle was lighted and covered with the gas jar (figure 5.4)

5. The flame and the water level was observed for a few minutes Observation: 1. The candle flame goes off after a short while. 2. Water rises one-fifth up the gas jar 3. The percentage of oxygen used for combustion is 1/5 x 100% = 20%

Conclusion: The percentage of oxygen in air is approximately 20%

HOMEWORK

Textbook Exercise 5.2 (pg 60)

Textbook pg : 57

Experiment Report

9.7.2007

TITLE

: Properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Objective : To determine the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Apparatus and Materials : Test tubes with stoppers, basin, sodium hydroxide solution, wooden splinter, blue and red litmus Papers, lime water and bicarbonate indicator

Procedure: 1. 7 test tubes was prepared containing oxygen gas and another 7 containing carbon dioxide gas 2. Test A to Test F was carried out on the 2 gases Test A: Solubility in water 1. A basin was filled with water 2. A test tube containing oxygen was lowered upside down into the water 3. The stopper of the test tube was removed and

kept it in the position as shown in Figure 5.9 for several minutes 4. Step 2 and Step 3 was repeated with a test tube containing carbon dioxide Test B: Solubility in sodium hydroxide solution 1. A beaker was filled with sodium hydroxide solution 2. A test tube containing oxygen was lowered upside down into the water (Figure 5.10) 3. The test tube was shook gently for a few minutes 4. Step 2 and Step 3 was repeated with a test

tube containing carbon dioxide Test C: Effect on glowing and burning wooden splinters 1. A glowing wooden splinter was inserted into a test tube containing oxygen (Figure 5.11) 2. Step 2 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide 3. A burning wooden splinter was inserted into a test tube containing oxygen (Figure 5.12) 4. Step 3 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide

Test D: Effect on litmus paper 1. A strip of moist, red litmus paper and a strip of moist, blue litmus paper was inserted into a test tube containing oxygen gas (Figure 5.13) 2. Step 1 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide Test E: Effect on lime water 1. About 2cm3 of lime water was added into a test tube containing oxygen gas (Figure 5.14) 2. The test tube was shook for a while 3. Step 1 and step 2 was repeated with the test tube containing carbon dioxide

Test F: Effect on bicarbonate indicator The steps in Test E was repeated with bicarbonate indicator instead of lime water Observation: Property 1 water Oxygen water rises a little in the test tube Carbon Dioxide water rises a little in the test tube

2 sodium Solution does Solution rises very hydroxide not rise in the high in the test solution test tube tube

To determine the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide (Textbook pg 57,58)


Property 1 2 Water sodium hydroxide solution Oxygen Carbon Dioxide

3
4

glowing wooden splinter


burning wooden splinter

5
6 7

red and blue litmus paper


lime water Carbonate indicator

To determine the properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide


Observation : Property Oxygen Carbon Dioxide

1 water

water rises a little in the test tube

water rises a little in the test tube

2 sodium Solution does Solution rises very hydroxide not rise in the high in the test solution test tube tube

3 glowing wooden splinter 4 burning wooden splinter

Splinter lights up

Splinters goes out

Splinter Splinters goes out burns more brightly

5 red and blue litmus paper

6 lime water

No changes Blue litmus paper turns red. No changes on red litmus paper No changes Turns cloudy / chalky

7 Carbonate indicator

No changes

Red colour of indicator turns yellow

Conclusion: Property 1 Solubility in water 2 Solubility in sodium hydroxide solution Oxygen Slightly soluble Not soluble Carbon Dioxide Slightly soluble

Highly soluble

3 glowing wooden splinter 4 5 6 7

Oxygen Carbon Dioxide supports does not support combustion combustion burning wooden splinter red and blue litmus paper Oxygen is Carbon dioxide is a neutral an acidic gas lime water gas Carbonate indicator

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg 41, 42

WORKBOOK (pg 43)


Question 4 Textbook (pg 32) Question 5 Notes (pg 15)/ Textbook pg35

Question 6 - evaporation - filtration - hold a magnet near the mixture - use a separating funnel ( Textbook pg 31, 32)

WORKBOOK (pg 43)


Question 4 a) Glass rod c) Filter paper d) Residue

f) Filtrate
g) Retort stand

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg 43, 44,

WORKBOOK (pg 41, 42)


1a) b) c) d) e) survive resources atmosphere habitat

5.3 Oxygen Is Needed For Respiration


RESPIRATION
Internal Respiration External Respiration
Inhaled Air

Exhaled Air

Respiration
(Internal Respiration)
- A chemical process which breaks down food (glucose) to produce energy

Breathing (pernafasan)

- A process which

(External Respiration)
involves the exchange of gases between the organism and its environment

- This process takes


place in the body cells

Inhaled Air
Air that we breath in (Oxygen)

Exhaled Air
Air that we breath out (Carbon Dioxide)

Breathing

RESPIRATION
Glucose + Oxygen (reactant) Energy + Carbon Dioxide + Water (products)

Living Things
Human Fish Frog Plants

How Do They Breath ?


Nose & Lungs Gills Skin & Lungs Stomata & Lenticels

Nose / Mouth Trachea Bronchus Bronchiole Alveoli = Inhaled Air = Exhaled Air

Respiratory Support
People Fireman Respiratory Support Tools Oxygen tank

Mountain climber
Patient in coma Scuba diver

Oxygen mask
ventilator Oxygen tank

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg 46, 47, 48, 49, 50

HOMEWORK

Textbook Exercise 5.3 (pg 65, 66)

Workbook (pg 50, 51, 52, 53)


1a) Iron sulphide

Workbook (pg 50, 51, 52)


1b) Compound in crucible A Mixture in crucible B No changes Iron filings are attracted to the magnet No changes Sulphur powder dissolves in the solutions A pungent smell gas is Odourless and colourless released gas is released

1c)

Observations
Compound in crucible A A new substance is formed Components can be separated by chemical method Mixture in crucible B No new substance is formed Components can be separated by physical method

2a) i) It is hot ii) It is not hot iii) Zinc is a good heat conductor but polythene is a poor heat conductor 2b) i) The bulb lights up ii) The bulb does not lights up iii) Copper can conduct electricity because copper is a good .. iv) Cannot. This is because PVC is a poor electrical conductor

3a) The sodium burns brightly and a white substances is formed

b) sodium chloride
c) A compound. Sodium and chlorine combine chemically in a definite ratio and a new substance is formed. d) Electrolysis

4a) A mixture. Sand, water and iron fillings do not combine chemically.

b) by using a magnet
c i) Evaporation ii) Mixture of sand and water (textbook pg 32, figure 4.6)

Check Your Answers and Mark Your Workbook

Workbook pg 41 66

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg 66

HOMEWORK

Textbook Exercise 5.4 (pg 72)

5.5 Air Pollution


(Pencemaran Udara)
1. Air pollution : occurs when the atmosphere contains pollutants 2. Air pollutants : harmful chemicals or substances present in the air

3. Examples of air pollutants a) smoke b) dust c) carbon monoxide d) sulphur dioxide e) oxides of nitrogen f) lead g) chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) h) carbon dioxide

No Air Pollutant (bahan pencemaran)

Sources (punca)

Effect (kesan)

Smoke particles and soot

- Cigarette

smoke - Smoke from motor vehicles - Burning of rubbish -Burning of fossil fuels - Forest fires

- Cause

breathing difficulties

- make the

eyes feel uncomfortable

-Cause haze

Dust

- Construction
sites
- Cement plants

- causes lung

cancer, coughing and asthma

3 8

Textbook Pg 73

Dust

- Construction
sites

- causes lung

- Cement plants Carbon - cigarette smoke monoxide - smoke from motor vehicles

cancer, coughing and asthma causes tiredness, headache, brain damage and death

Sulphur dioxide

-Burning of - damages lung cells


coal

-Forms acid rain that


damages metallic structures and kills aquatic life

- Kills plants 5 Oxides of nitrogen

- smoke

- Form acid rain

from motor vehicles

Lead

- burning of - damages the kidneys,


leaded petrol heart and brain - Causes mental retardation in children

chlorofluorocarbon

(CFC)

- aerosol

Carbon dioxide

the ozone layer and exposes us to harmful rays from the Sun - burning of - Causes the rising of the rubbish -Burning of Earths temperature fossil fuels as a result of the greenhouse effect

sprays electronics factories

- damages

Textbook pg : 68

Experiment Report

26.7.2007

TITLE

: Finding out whether the size of a container affects the length of time a candle burns

IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM : Does the size of a container affect the length of time a candle burns?

Hypothesis : The candle in a larger container will burn longer than the one in a smaller container

Constant variable : Type of candle Manipulated variable : Size of container Responding variable : The length of time a candle burns Apparatus and Materials : Gas jar, bell jar, candles, plasticine and stopwatch Procedure: 1. A candle was lighted up

2. A gas jar was placed over the candle as shown


in Figure 5.20 and the stopwatch was started

3. The stopwatch was stopped when the flame went out. The length of time taken was recorded 4. Step 1 to step 3 was repeated using a bell jar as shown in Figure 5.21 5. The length of time taken was recorded before the flame went out Observation :

Observation : Container Duration Observation Gas Jar 13 s Candle burns for a short while Inference The small container contains less oxygen the larger container contains more oxygen

Bell Jar

1min 22s candle burns for a longer period

Conclusion: 1. The smaller the container, the shorter the time taken for a candle to burn

2. The larger the container, the longer the time taken for a candle to burn

5.4 Oxygen Is Needed For Combustion (pembakaran)


1. Combustion is commonly known as burning

2. Combustion is a chemical reaction of a substance with oxygen which gives out heat and light.

3 Combustion only occurs in the presence of i) fuel (combustible material) ii) heat Oxygen iii) oxygen
Combustion
Heat

Fuel

4 Combustion will not occur if any factor above is not present

5. There are 2 types of fuels

Fuel
Carbon

Hydrocarbon

Coal Charcoal

Kerosene Natural gas Petrol Diesel

6. When carbon burns in air:


Carbon + Oxygen
burn

Carbon dioxide + Heat + Light

7. When hydrocarbon burns in air:


Hydrocarbon + Oxygen
burn

Carbon dioxide + water + Heat + Light

Usage Of Oxygen For Combustion


1. Steel-making industry (keluli) 2. Welding torch for welding (las) metal 3. Rocket launching to space

Textbook pg : 70

Experiment Report

1.8.2007

TITLE

: Testing the products of combustion of charcoal

OBJECTIVE : To determine the products of combustion of a carbon (charcoal) Apparatus and Materials : Gas jar, gas jar spoon, gas jar covers and lime water

Procedure: 1. A little lime water was poured into a gas jar

2. The gas jar was shook for a while and the


colour of the lime water was observed

3. A piece of charcoal was heated in a gas jar


spoon with a Bunsen burner.

4. The charcoal was inserted into a gas jar when


it is burning

5. The charcoal was observed 6. The surfaced of the gas jar was touched

7. The charcoal was removed after the flame has gone out 8. A little lime water was added into the gas jar and shook. 9. The colour of the lime water was observed.
Observation :

Observation :

Test Observation Inference Wall of Becomes hot Heat is released the gas jar
Lime water Turns Cloudy Carbon Dioxide is produced.
When charcoal is burned, its carbon element combines with the oxygen in air to form carbon dioxide

Conclusion: 1. The products from the combustion of carbon are carbon dioxide, heat and light
2. Carbon + Oxygen
burns

Carbon dioxide + Heat + Light

Textbook pg : 71

Experiment Report

3.8.2007

TITLE

: Testing the products of combustion of kerosene

OBJECTIVE : To determine the products of combustion of a hydrocarbon (kerosene) Apparatus and Materials : Beaker, kerosene lamp, test tube, lime water, stopper, wooden block and anhydrous cobalt chloride paper.

Procedure: 1. A kerosene lamp was lighted up 2. The smoke formed was collected with a test tube 3. A little lime water was added into the test tube 4. The test tube was closed with a stopper and shook

5. The apparatus was set up as shown in Figure 5.24 6. The kerosene lamp was allowed to burn for a few minutes 7. The liquid droplets was tested with anhydrous cobalt chloride paper. Observation :

Observation : Observation Test


Lime Water

Inference

Turns Cloudy Carbon Dioxide is produced. When kerosene is burned, its carbon element combines with the oxygen in air to form carbon dioxide Turns pink Yes
Water is produced. When kerosene is burned, its hydrogen element combines with the oxygen in air to form water.

Blue cobalt chloride paper Are there any liquid droplets on the inner surface of the beaker?

Conclusion: 1. The products from the combustion of hydrocarbon are carbon dioxide, water, heat and light 2.
Hydrocarbon + Oxygen burns Carbon dioxide + water + Heat + Light

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50

Workbook (pg 77, 78, 79)


1a) i) Types of air in the gas jar ii) Time taken for the burning candles to extinguish first iii) Volume of gas jar

1b)

Candle in gas jar P extinguish first

1c)

Oxygen is needed in burning. Exhaled air contain less oxygen than inhaled air 16 %

1d)

2a) i) Presence of organism ii) Colour change of Hydrogen bicarbonate indicator iii) Volume of Hydrogen bicarbonate indicator

2b)

Boiling tube A B C

Observation Hydrogen Carbonate turns from red to yellow Hydrogen Carbonate turns from red to yellow Hydrogen Carbonate remains red

2c) i) The cockroach and germinating seeds released carbon dioxide during respiration ii) The carbon dioxide released changes the colour of indicator from red to yellow 2d) Organism release carbon dioxide during respiration

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg 71, 72, 73

Steps To Control Air Pollution


No
1

Role

How to control air pollution

Vehicles i) Equipped with catalytic converters to reduce the emission of pollutants ii) Use unleaded petrol

Laws

Anti-pollution laws must be strictly enforced and obeyed

Factories i) Set up far away from housing area ii) Filter smoke before it is released

iii) Less use chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)


iv) Build the chimneys as tall as possible so that the smoke and soot are released high in the sky V) Use other sources of energy like wind, solar and hydro

The publics

i) Stop open burning ii) Stop smoking

iii) use public transport or car pool to


reduce cars on the road

iv) Avoid using products that releases


CFCs into the environment

v) Use less electricity. Saving

electricity means less pollutants will be released as less electricity needs to be generated

Agriculture

i) Advise farmers to reduce the


use of pesticides fertilisers

ii) Encourage farmers to use

biological control ways to kill pests and increase yields

HOMEWORK

Workbook pg 69, 70

HOMEWORK

Textbook Exercise 5.5 (pg 75)

5.6 The Importance Of Keeping The Air Clean


No
1

How Life Would Be Without Clean Air ?


Health Problem

i) Headache ii) Skin Diseases iii) Asthma iv) Bronchitis v) Lung and throat cancer

Depletion of food resources

Dust and soot on the leaves of plants reduce the rate of photosynthesis, causing less food to be produced by (pengurangan sumber makanan) plants Global warming Or Green house effect i) Carbon dioxide traps heat radiated from the ground and prevents it from the ground and prevents it from escaping into outer space ii) This cause the Earths temperature is rising

Acid rain

i) Causes plants to die

( Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen dioxide) ii) Causes aquatic animals such as fish and prawn to be killed iii) Natural habitats are destroyed

because they become unable to absorb water

iv) Destroy buildings, steel bridges and vehicles

Thinning of the ozone layer

i) Ozone layer protects us from the


harmful rays of the sun

ii) CFC can corrode the ozone layer iii) Harmful ultraviolet rays from
the sun can cause - skin cancer - cataract (eyes disease) - lowering of the bodys defence system - reducing the yield of plants

Therefore, it is very important for everyone to practise the habits that keep the clean air

HOMEWORK

Textbook Exercise 5.6 (pg 76)