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Fundamentals of Management

Sixth Edition

Robbins and DeCenzo


with contributions from Henry Moon

CHAPTER

Part IV: Leading

12
2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.

Communication and Interpersonal Skills


PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama

LEARNING OUTCOMES After reading this chapter, you will be able to:
1. Define communication and explain why it is important to managers. 2. Describe the communication process. 3. List techniques for overcoming communication barriers. 4. Describe the wired and wireless technologies affecting organizational communications. 5. Identify behaviors related to effective active listening. 6. Explain what behaviors are necessary for providing effective feedback.
2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 122

L E A R N I N G O U T C O M E S (contd) After reading this chapter, you will be able to:


7. Describe the contingency factors influencing delegation. 8. Identify behaviors related to effective delegating. 9. Describe the steps in analyzing and resolving conflict. 10. Explain why a manager might stimulate conflict. 11. Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.

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EXHIBIT 121

The Communication Process

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Communication Process Terms


Encoding
The conversion of a

Feedback
The degree to which

message into some symbolic form

Message
A purpose to be conveyed

Channel
The medium by which a

carrying out the work activities require by a job results in the individuals obtaining direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his her performance

message travels

Decoding
A receivers translation of

a senders message

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Written Versus Verbal Communications Written


Tangible Verifiable More permanent More precise More care taken

Verbal
Less secure Known receipt Quicker response Consumes less

with the written word

time Quicker feedback

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The Grapevine
The grapevine motto: Good information passes among people fairly rapidlybad information, even faster! Grapevine
An unofficial channel of

communication that is neither authorized nor supported by the organization.

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EXHIBIT 122

The Grapevine

Source: Reprinted with special permission of King Features Syndicate. 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 128

Nonverbal Communications
Body Language
Nonverbal communication cues such as facial

expressions, gestures, and other body movements

Verbal Intonation
An emphasis given to word or phrases that

conveys meaning

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EXHIBIT 123

Barriers to Effective Communication

Filtering Selective perception Information overload Emotions Language Gender National Culture

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EXHIBIT 124

Overcoming Barriers to Effective Communication

Use feedback
Simplify language Listen actively Constrain emotions Watch nonverbal cues

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EXHIBIT 125

Using Simple Language?

Source: DILBERT, reprinted by permission of United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1212

Information Technology (IT)


E-mail
Is the instantaneous transmission of messages on

computers that are linked together.

Instant Messaging (IM)


Is interactive, real-time communication among users

logged on the computer network at the same time.

Voice Mail
A system that digitizes a spoken message, transmits

it over the network, and stores the message for the receiver to retrieve later.

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Information Technology (contd)


Fax
Allows for the transmission of documents containing

both text and graphics over telephone lines.

Electronic Data Interchange EDI


An exchange of documents with vendors, suppliers,

and customers using direct, computer-to-computer networks.

Teleconferencing
Allows groups to confer simultaneously using

telephone or e-mail group communications software.

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Information Technology (contd)


Teleconferencing
Allows groups to confer simultaneously using

telephone or e-mail group communications software.

Videoconferencing
Is a simultaneous conference during which meeting

participants in different locations can see each other over video screens.

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Information Technology (contd)


Intranets
An organizational communication network that uses

Internet technology but is accessible only to organizational employees.

Extranets
An organizational communication network that uses

Internet technology and allows authorized users inside the organization to communicate with certain outsiders such as customers or vendors.

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Information Technology (contd)


Wireless Communications
Allow users to send and receive information from

anywhere as signals sent without a direct physical connection to a hard-wired network system.

Knowledge Management
Includes cultivating a learning culture in which

employees systematically gather knowledge and share it through computer-based networks and community of interest teams.

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Developing Interpersonal Skills


Listening Requires:
Paying attention. Interpreting.

Remembering sound stimuli.

Active Listening Requires:


Listening attentively (intensely) to the speaker. Developing empathy for what the speaker is saying. Accepting by listening without judging content. Taking responsibility for completeness in getting the

full meaning from the speakers communication.


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Steps in Active Listening


1. Make eye contact.
2. Exhibit affirmative nods and appropriate facial expressions. 3. Avoid distracting actions or gestures that suggest boredom. 4. Ask questions. 5. Paraphrase using your own words. 6. Avoid interrupting the speaker. 7. Dont overtalk. 8. Make smooth transitions between the roles of speaker and listener.
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Characteristics of Feedback
Positive Feedback
Is more readily and accurately perceived than

negative feedback.
Is almost always accepted, whereas negative

feedback often meets resistance.

Negative Feedback
Is most likely to be accepted when it comes from a

credible source or if it is objective.


Carries weight only when it comes from a person

with high status and credibility.

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EXHIBIT 126 Suggestions for Effective Feedback

Focus on specific behavior


Keep feedback impersonal Keep feedback goal oriented

Make feedback well timed


Ensure understanding Direct negative feedback toward behavior that the receiver can control

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What Are Empowerment Skills?


Forces Driving Empowerment
Need for quick decisions by those most knowledge

about the issue. Downsizing has lead to the necessity for lower-level employees to make decisions.

Delegation
Is the assignment of authority to another person to

carry out specific activities while retaining the ultimate responsibility for the activities.

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EXHIBIT 127

Effective Delegation

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EXHIBIT 128

Contingency Factors in Delegation

The size of the organization The importance of the duty or decisions Task complexity Organizational culture Quality of employees

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Empowerment through Delegation


Proper delegation is not abdication and requires:
Clarifying the exact job to be done

Setting the range of the employees discretion


Defining the expected level of performance Setting the time frame for the task to be completed Allowing employees to participate Establishing feedback controls

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Managing Conflict
Conflict
Is perceived differences resulting in interference or

opposition.

Functional Conflict
Supports an organizations goals.

Dysfunctional Conflict
Prevents and organization from achieving its goals

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Three Views of Conflict


Traditional View
Assumed that conflict was bad and would always

have a negative impact on an organization.

Human Relations View


Argued that conflict was a natural and inevitable

occurrence in all organizations; rationalized the existence of conflict and advocated its acceptance.

Interactionist View
Encourages mangers to maintain ongoing minimum

level of conflict sufficient to keep organizational units viable, self-critical, and creative.

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EXHIBIT 129

Conflict and Organizational Performance

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Dimensions of Conflict (Thomas)


Cooperativeness
The degree to which an individual will attempt to

rectify a conflict by satisfying the other persons concerns.

Assertiveness
The degree to which an individual will attempt to

rectify the conflict to satisfy his or her own concerns.

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Dimensions of Conflict (contd)


Conflict-handling techniques derived from Thomas cooperative and assertiveness dimensions:
Competing (assertive but uncooperative)
Collaborating (assertive and cooperative) Avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative)

Accommodating (unassertive but cooperative)


Compromising (midrange on assertiveness and

cooperativeness

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EXHIBIT 1210

Conflict Management: What Works Best and When

Avoidance Accommodation Forcing

Compromise
Collaboration

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Sources of Conflict

Causes of Conflict

Communication Differences

Structural Differences

Personal Differences

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How To Stimulate Functional Conflict


Convey to employees the message that conflict has its legitimate place. Use hot-button communications while maintaining plausible deniability. Issue ambiguous or threatening messages. Bring in outsiders.

Centralize decisions, realign work groups, increase formalization and interdependencies between units.
Appoint a devils advocate to purposely present arguments that run counter to those proposed by the majority or against current practices.
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What Are Negotiation Skills?


Negotiation
Is a process in which two or more parties who have

different preference must make a joint decision and come to an agreement


Distributive bargaining

Negotiation under zero-sum conditions, in which the gains by one party involve losses by the other party.

Integrative bargaining

Negotiation in which there is at least one settlement that involves no loss to either party.

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EXHIBIT 1211

Determining the Bargaining Zone

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Developing Effective Negotiation Skills


Research the individual with whom youll be negotiating. Begin with a positive overture. Address problems, not personalities. Pay little attention to initial offers. Emphasize win-win solutions. Create an open and trusting climate. If needed, be open to accepting third-party assistance.

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Making an Effective Presentation?


Prepare for the presentation. Make your opening comments. Make your points. End the presentation. Answer questions.

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EXHIBIT 1212

Two Great Teams, One Great Organization

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