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Downlink Scheduling for Multimedia Multicast/Broadcast over Mobile WiMAX Connection-oriented Multistate Adaptation

Source:IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine ,2009/8 Authors:Hongfei Du, Jiangchuan Liu, Jie Liang
Reporter: M9856020 M9856023 M9856026 M9856029 M9856031 M9856034

ABSTRACT Introduction Background MAC and QoS Scheduling in WiMAX Connection-Oriented Multi-State Optimization Performance Analysis Conclusion

This article systematically examines the design issues and the state of the art of multimedia downlink scheduling in the multicast/broadcast-based WiMAX system. We propose a viable end-to-end framework, connection-oriented multistate adaptation, by considering cross-layer adaptations in source coding, queue prioritization, flow queuing, and scheduling.

WiMAX lie in its cost-competitive deployment and comprehensive quality of service support for large numbers of heterogeneous mobile devices with highdata rate wireless access. Digital multimedia broadcasting (DMB) have offered the network operator a platform to deliver multimedia services to a mass market. 4

A novel concept of connection-oriented service flow, supporting QoS for both uplink and downlink on a per service flow basis.
A viable end-to-end cross-layer framework, connection-oriented multistate adaptation(CMA), which adopts the serviceoriented design on per-service-flow connections carrying multisession MBS.


Multicast/broadcast WiMAX system architecture for MBS service delivery


The 802.16e radio interface adopts orthogonal frequency-division multiple access(OFDMA).
WiMAX system in point-to-multipoint (PMP) mode, where the QoS is mainly enforced by the MAC and APP layers.

Medium access control

"Medium access control "is also called Media access control.

The MAC include three sublayers. There are Convergence sublayer Common part sublayer Security sublayer WiMAX support two types of scheduling in MAC 1.Downlink scheduling 2.Uplink request/grant scheduling

e.g. Downlink scheduling procedures from Base station (BS)

Well describe MAC sublayer with two diagrams

The scheduling between SS and BS

The scheduling of Uplink Channel

SSSubscriber station- From the user side BSBase station CSConvergence sublayer CPSCommon part sublayer UL-MAPUplink-MAP

Uplink request/grant scheduling was denoted the process that CS recieve a service request from SS and deliver the packets to CS. In the uplink channel it will build a scheduling for service classify when the connection was linked. The incoming Packet classified in different service classes when the packet pass through Convergence Sublayer (CS), and service data unit(SDUs) are assigned to appropriate connection in Common part sublayer (CPS).

The scheduling between SS and BS

The scheduling of Downlink Channel

SSSubscriber station BSBase station CSConvergence sublayer CPSCommon part sublayer DL-MAPDownlink-MAP

Three sublayers in MAC

Convergence sublayer
For packet classification with incoming packet from Upper layer.

Common part sublayer

Connection assignment base on the different service request, and assigned to appropriate connection base on the priority.

Security sublayer
Provide security functions, such as secure key exchange and encryption on the receive PDUs

Qos-Based Scheduling in WiMAX Qos Mechanism

The success of WiMAX lies in its comprehensive supports for a variety of dominant broadband services in a suite of QoS scheduling types.
1.Unsolicited grant service (UGS) 2. Extended real-time polling service (ertPS) 3. Real-time polling service (rtPS) 4. Non-real-time polling service (nrtPS) 5. Best effort (BE)

Unsolicited grant service (UGS):

UGS transmit periodic real-time character of the fixed data. It requires reserved traffic rate, maximum latency, and tolerated jitter. Such as T1/E1 transport.

UGS scheduling service uplink grants allocation mechanism

Extended real-time polling service (ertPS):

Its built on the efficiency of both UGS and rtPS, reduces overhead and access delay of rtPS, and improves uplink resource utilization of the UGS. Such as voice of IP (VoIP).

Real-time polling service (rtPS): It supports variable bit rate (VBR) traffic via minimum reserved and maximum sustained traffic rates, and requires tolerable stringent latency constraints. Such as MPEG audio/video streaming and video conferencing.

rtPS scheduling service uplink grants allocation and request mecha

Non-real-time polling service (nrtPS): Delay-tolerant streams with variable-sized packets, for which only minimum reserved and maximum sustained traffic rates are required. Such as FTP. Best effort (BE) service: BE services" are handled on a space available basis and do not require tight latency/ jitter constraints, with upper limited bandwidth consumption via maximum sustained traffic rate. Such as HTTP and email.


Weighted Round Robin(WRR) Deficit Round Robin (DRR) Weighted Fair Queue(WFQ) Earliest Deadline First (EDF) Max C/I

Weighted Round Robin(WRR)

Weighted Fair Queue(WFQ)

Deficit Round Robin (DRR)

Earliest Deadline First (EDF)

Max C/I (carrier-to-interference)

The main drawbacks of this scheduler are mainly its inherent unfairness and coverage limitations. This scheduler essentially ranks all the users according to their instantaneous carrier-to-interference (C/I) ratios. This scheduler is optimal in obtaining the maximum network throughput

Scheduling problem in WIMAX

QoS differentiation:class,herterogeneous service Connection-oriented:scheduling and flow differentiation Guarantee:monitor instaneous perfomance Scheduling:chanel vibrations,queuing dynamic Adapt transmitter side settings

Connection-Oriented Multistate Optimization

Optimization Criteria

QoS profile (PQoS)

It jointly considers end-to end delay factor ,packet loss rate (PLR) factor (FEP), and E2E throughput factor for the ith session and is defined as PQoS(i) = FED(i) FEP(i) FET(i) where each factor reflects the difference between the instantaneous performance and its application-specific target

Queuing state profile (PQS)

It considers multiple dynamic queuing metrics in terms of queuing delay, buffer occupancy, and overflow probability.

Channel state profile (PCS)

It reflects the overall reception condition for each session based on the reception conditions for all subscriber stations (SSs) within the MC/BC group.

Problem Formulation

Possible state element

Dynamic metric
Threshold metric Distortion metric Adaptation metric

Queuing State
Queuing delay factor (FQD)
Buffer occupancy factor (FBO) Overflow probability factor (FOP)

Effective Reception
The SS performs the following two important tasks: 1. Monitors the CSI in terms of received SINR continuously, and sends this information to the BS 2. Measures the instantaneous E2E performance in terms of delay, PLR, and throughput

The instantaneous E2E performance is then compared with QoS constraints, and the following measures are determined:

1. E2E delay factor 2. E2E throughput factor 3. E2E PLR factor

PCS(i) = Prob{PCS(i,j) | PCS(i,j) > PCS*(i,j)}

Adaptive Queue Prioritization

Packet Classification
in MC/BC-based WiMAX, the packets received by the BS and destined to the downlink are sorted by the packet classification before being buffered into one of the per class queues in the BS. Video streams are encoded via an H.264/SVC encoder before transmission together with other download services.

Multiple connections/queues are then subject to scheduling functions based on the serving orders derived from the CMA module. The CMA considers multiple important metrics.

Two important performance indices

Demanding index (DI):
how much resource the flow is demanding

Satisfaction index (SI):

how much resource allowance the flow has for sharing with other flows

Source Coding Adaptation

Scalable Video Coding (SVC) extension of H.264/AVC for cross-layer optimization. To deliver video stream in wireless network is very difficult . SVC can overcome the signal fading, bit error and packet loss in wireless network.

With SVC, a MBS video stream is split into a base layer (BL) and multiple enhancement layers (ELs) that refine the video quality. All MC/BC connections to be originated from a single BS with no connection sharing or handoff events.

Temporal Scalability

Spatial Scalability

SNR Scalability

We assume the BL is successfully obtained by all users by applying robust modulation and coding or FEC/automatic repeat request (ARQ). We associate different Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)payload types to the BL and the ELs.

Performing BL/EL rate control based on the QoS satisfaction of each SS, rather than unified treatment on all SSs. The SSs with undersatisfied QoS will be assigned more important streams.

Performance Analysis
Simulation consists of two parts
H.264/MPEG-4 AVC JM reference software System-level simulation model in NS-2

An indicative simulation scenario is set to a total of 20 SSs located randomly within 5 5 km2, with the BS located at the center of the area.
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Performance Analysis
CID-SFID mapping settings to CID 1-SFID 1:e.g., MPEG video BL video stream at 360 kb/s, in VBR rtPS with 1.08 Mb/s sum stream rate CID 2-SFID 1: e.g., MPEG video EL video stream at 720 kb/s, in VBR rtPS with 1.08 Mb/s sum stream rate CID 3-SFID 2: e.g., FTP CBR nrtPS services at 360 kb/s CID 4-SFID 3: e.g., e-mail CBR BE services at 360 kb/s

Performance Analysis
Four schemes and CMA scheme
Weighted Round Robin(WRR): proportion, weight Weighted Fair Queue(WFQ): regulating, weight Earliest Deadline First (EDF): deadline, packet Max C/I: upper bound of system capacity

Performance Analysis

The 95th percentile CDF of E2E delay for rtPS services under different downlink scheduling schemes

Performance Analysis

Variance of overall throughput ratios under different downlink scheduling schemes


The framework performs simultaneous adaptations across protocol stacks on source coding, queue prioritization, flow queuing, and scheduling. The heterogeneity in wireless link variations, queue fluctuations, and reception diversities are incorporated. Simulation studies on the proposed framework showed improved performance on delay, throughput, and fairness. 51

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