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INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES

An engine is a device, which converts one form of energy into mechanical energy.
Heat engine is a device, which transforms heat energy into mechanical energy. The heat engines are classified as

Internal combustion engines External combustion engines

The internal combustion engines are those engines in which the combustion of fuel takes place inside the engine cylinder. Eg: Petrol, diesel and gas engines.

The external combustion engines are those engines in which the combustion of fuel takes place outside the engine cylinder. Eg: Steam engines and steam turbines.

Classification of I.C engines


1. According to the type of fuel used

Petrol engines Diesel Engines Gas Engines

2. According to the method of igniting the fuel

Spark Ignition engines (Petrol Engines and Gas Engines) Compression Ignition engines(Diesel Engines) Hot Spot ignition engines

3. According to the number of strokes per cycle


Four stroke cycle engines Two stroke cycle engines

4.According to the cycle of operation


Otto cycle engines Diesel cycle engines Dual combustion engines

5.According to the speed of the engine.


Slow speed engines Medium speed engines High speed engines

6. According to the method of cooling the cylinder Air Cooled Engines Water Cooled Engines 7. According to the number of cylinders Single cylinder Engines Multi cylinder Engines

8. According to their uses: Stationary Engines Marine Engines Automobile engines Aero Engines etc.
9. According to the arrangement of cylinder: Horizontal Engine Vertical Engine V-type Engine Radial Engine etc.

Basic Piston Engine Definitions


TDC BDC Stroke Bore Intake valve Exhaust valve

Nomenclature for Engines

Displacement / Clearance Volumes

Basic Engine Definitions

Clearance volume Displaced volume

Compression ratio = Total Volume Clearance Volume

Basic Components 4 STROKE

Basic Components 4 STROKE

Structural Components

Cylinder Block

Part of engine frame that contains cylinders in which piston moves Supports liners & head

Structural Components

Cylinder Head/Assembly

Serves to admit, confine, and release fuel/air Cover to cylinder block Supports valve train Engine frame section that houses the crankshaft Reservoir for collecting and holding lube oil

Crankcase

Oil sump

Moving Components

Three Groups according to motion


Reciprocating only (pistons and valves) Reciprocation & rotary (connecting rods) Rotary only (crankshafts and camshafts)

Moving Components

Piston

Acted on by combustion gases Lightweight but strong/durable Transfer heat from piston to cylinder Seal cylinder & distribute lube oil Pivot point connecting piston to connecting rod Connects piston & crankshaft reciprocating rotating motion

Piston Rings

Piston Pin

Connecting Rod

Moving Components

Crankshaft

Combines work done by each piston Drives camshafts, generator, pumps, etc.

Flywheel

Absorbs and releases kinetic energy of piston strokes -> smoothes rotation of crankshaft

Moving Components

Valves

Intake: open to admit air to cylinder (with fuel in Otto cycle) Exhaust: open to allow gases to be rejected Used to time the addition of intake and exhaust valves Operates valves via pushrods & rocker arms

Camshaft & Cams

Operation

Increased pressure of combustion gases acts on piston -> converted to rotary motion Can be 2 or 4 stroke engines

2-stroke: 1 power stroke per 1 crankshaft rev 4-stroke: 1 power stroke per 2 crankshaft rev

Operation

Engine stroke

A stroke is a single traverse of the cylinder by the piston (from TDC to BDC) 1 revolution of crankshaft = 2 strokes of piston

Four-Stroke Petrol Engine

Intake stroke

Intake valve open, exhaust valve shut Piston travels from TDC to BDC Air-Fuel Mixture from carburettor drawn in
Intake and exhaust valves shut Piston travels from BDC to TDC Temperature and pressure of mixture increase

Compression stroke

Four-Stroke Petrol Engine

Power stroke

Intake and exhaust valves shut Spark produced by Spark plug and ignites Piston forced from TDC to BDC
Intake valve shut, exhaust valve open Piston moves from BDC to TDC Combustion gases expelled

Exhaust stroke

Four-Stroke Petrol Engine

Strokes

Intake Compression

Power Exhaust

Just see

Differences between a Petrol Engine and Diesel Engine. No Aspects Petrol Diesel
1. Thermodynamic Cycle Otto Cycle Diesel Cycle and Dual Combustion Cycle.

2.

Fuel Used

Petrol

Diesel

3.

Air Fuel ratio

10:1 to 20:1

18:1 to 100:1

Up to 11
4. Compression ratio

12 to 24

5.

COMBUSTION

Spark Ignition

Compression Ignition

6.

FUEL SUPPLY

By Carburetor.Cheap method

By injection. Explosive Method

7.

Operating Pressure 1.Compression Pressure 2.Max. Pressure

1. 7 bar to 15 bar 2. 45 bar to 60 bar

1. 30 bar to 50 2.

bar 60 bar to 120 bar

Operating Speed 8.

High Speed:2000 to 6000 rpm

Low Speed: 400 rpm to 3500 rpm

9.

Control of Power

Quantity Governing By Throttle

Quality Governing by Rack.

10.

Calorific Value

44 MJ/Kg

42 MJ/Kg

11.

Running Cost

High

Low

12

Uses

Mopeds,Scooters,m Buses, trucks otorcycles,Simple locomotives,tractor engine passenger s,earth moving cars, air-crafts etc. machinery and stationary generating plants.

13 14

Thermal Efficiency Intake to cylinder during compression

Up to 30%

Up to 40%

Air Petrol Mixture Air only

15

Weight

Light

Heavy

2 Stroke engine

One working cycle in every revolution of the crank shaft. Flat top piston is replaced by a member called piston crown for controlling the movement of air-fuel mixture and also for emission. Inlet and exhaust valves are replaced by inlet and exhaust ports.

Working stages
Suction stage

Both inlet and exhaust ports open. Fresh air-fuel mixture enters the cylinder.

Compression stage

Air-fuel mixture inside cylinder compressed. Inlet port opened and fresh mixture enters. Transfer and exhaust ports closed.

Expansion stage

Compressed mixture ignited by the spark plug. High energy produced pushes the piston down.

Exhaust stage

Exhaust port opens and products of combustion released into the atmosphere. Piston moves downwards.

2 Stroke diesel engine has the following difference from petrol engine

Spark plug replaced by fuel injection valve. During suction only air is passed in instead of the airfuel mixture. In expansion stage, the fuel is injected in the form of fine spray through the fuel injection valve. The high temperature of the compressed air is enough to ignite the fuel.

2 stroke petrol engine

Scavenging

Removal of burnt gases from the engine cylinder. Very important as some burnt gases are not completely exhausted before suction and it can mix with fresh charge reducing the efficiency. Types of scavenging Cross-flow Loop Uni-flow

Cross-flow scavenging

Transfer and exhaust ports on opposite sides. Special shape of piston crown allows fresh charge to rise up and push away the burnt gases Inlet and outlet ports on the same side of the cylinder. Fresh charge enters, forms a loop and pushes out the burnt gases. One inlet or two inlets (on each side). Both fresh and burnt gases rises up. Exhaust port situated on the top.

Loop scavenging

Uni-flow scavenging

Systems in I.C engines

Ignition system
Battery ignition Magneto ignition

Cooling system
Air cooled Water cooled

Fuel system
Carburetor Fuel pump Atomizer

Lubricating system
Wet sump Dry sump

Battery ignition system or coil ignition system

6/12Vbattery, switch, ballast resistor, induction coil, capacitor, cam, contact breaker and distributor. Resistor used to regulate primary current. Induction coil has primary (few turns) and secondary (large turns) coil wound on a soft iron core. Condenser connected across the contact breaker to prevent sparking across contact breaker points. Distributor transmits high voltage to appropriate spark plugs based on firing order (1-3-4-2). Cam is used to open and close the contact breaker. The rapid reversal of magnetic field induces a very high voltage in the secondary winding. Voltage of the order of 10,000-20,000V will be produced.

Magneto ignition system Magnet, switch, ballast resistor, induction coil, capacitor, cam, contact breaker and distributor. Resistor used to regulate primary current. Induction coil has primary (few turns) and secondary (large turns) coil wound on a soft iron core. Condenser connected across the contact breaker to prevent sparking across contact breaker points. Distributor transmits high voltage to appropriate spark plugs based on firing order (1-3-4-2). Cam is used to open and close the contact breaker. The rapid reversal of magnetic field induces a very high voltage in the secondary winding. Voltage of the order of 10,000-20,000V will be produced.

Spark plug

Two electrodes with proper gas across which a spark is generated. Consists of terminal, steel shell, insulator and two electrodes. Electrodes of high nickel alloy and air gap of 0.61mm . Electric arc is set up between the tips of electrode and spark produced.

Carburetor

Breaking up of fuel and mixing with air (15:1 ratio). When a volatile fuel is placed in the passage of high velocity air, the fuel gets vaporized. Venturimeter, throttle valve, float chamber, air vent, float are the parts. Used in petrol engines.

Fuel system in petrol engine

Fuel tank

Fuel filter

Fuel pump

Engine cylinder

Carburetor

system in diesel engine

Fuel tank

Fuel filter

Fuel pump (low pres)

Fuel injector

Fuel injection pump (high pres)

Fuel pump

To deliver fuel to the fuel injector. Consists of a plunger and a spring arrangement. Plunger rotated by rack and pinion. Plunger rises up pushing the compressed fuel through the injector.

Fuel injector/Atomiser

Fuel under pressure is supplied to the nozzle mouth through the passage and injected into the cylinder as a fine spray. Leaked fuel is supplied back into the fuel pump through the leak off pipe.

Air cooling system

Heat dissipated by conducting through cylinder walls. Fins are provided to increase area of conduction. Fans are provided in larger units.

Water cooling system

Water circulated around the cylinder walls and kept in motion by a centrifugal pump . This water is cooled by the air from the radiator . In thermosyphon system, valve is used which will permit water flow only above a certain temperature. So optimum temperature maintained around cylinder walls.

Splash lubrication

Simplest system. Suitable for Small capacity engines. Scoop dips into the oil and splashes it on to the parts Oil collected back in the crankcase.

Pressure lubrication

Dry sump lubrication

Thank you for your co- operation

-Aravind Babu