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Welcome to the

Lecture on
Docks & Harbors

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The Presenter

Engr. Sohail Bashir


B.E (Civil), NEDUET,
M.S (Transportation), NEDUET
M.S (Coastal, Estuarial and Harbour Engineering),
IHE, Delft, The Netherlands,
C.I (Dredging) IADC,Hague, The Netherlands,
C.I (Environmental Engg.), Osaka, Japan

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Ports & Harbor
in Pakistan

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Contents of Presentation
Section – I : Introduction
Section – II : Field of Studies in Coastal &
Harbor Engineering
Section – III : The General Aspects of P &H
Section – IV : Ports & Harbors in Pakistan
Section – V : Video Presentations
- Dredging
- Construction of Storm
Surge Barrier (Hydraulic
Structure) at Netherlands.
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SECTION – I

INTRODUCTION

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Introduction

The Coastal & Harbor


Engineering is the application of
basic engineering principles to
the planning, design,
construction and management
of structures that are subject to
marine environments.
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Introduction
The Coastal & Harbor Engineering
provides practically – based
education for graduate and
practicing engineers interested in
the design, construction and
maintenance of civil works in the
off- shore and coastal zones as
well as in estuaries, ports and
harbors.
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Introduction

The physical phenomena of


the sea and the coast in
particular coastal
morphology are emphasized
in the subjects related to
coastal engineering.
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Introduction

The study of coastal defense


works, sea dikes, sea outfalls &
intakes, offshore jetties
planning, design & construction
of ports form an important
element of the Coastal & Harbor
Engineering.

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Introduction
The curriculum of Coastal & Harbor
Engineering focuses on applied geo-
techniques & foundation engineering
and construction aspects of
hydraulic structures.

Exercise on Sheet pile design, Slope


stability, Breakwater and Quay wall
design form a key element of the
curriculum.
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Introduction
Furthermore, subjects such as
Environment, informatics,
Sediment transport,
Hydrographic survey, Dredging,
Inland Navigation, Port
management and Project
management are also included in
the curriculum of Coastal &
Harbor Engineering.
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Introduction
NEED
◆ Pakistan has a coast line of more than
900 KM.
◆ It is extended in the region of Arabian
sea and Persian gulf.
◆ Due to shortage of Engineering
manpower in this area, Pakistan has
not been able to take full benefits of this
gift of nature.
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Introduction
NEED
Pakistan has always relied
upon the expatriates for the
design of ports & harbors,
offshore petroleum extraction &
design of coastal and offshore
structures.
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Introduction
NEED
This is due to the reason that non of
the Engineering University of
Pakistan has ever embark upon to
offer a program of study in this area
of need.
Now, NEDUET has embark upon to
meet the need of Pakistan by offering
Master’s Program in Coastal &
Harbor Engineering.
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Introduction

If proper planning is not done at


this stage to develop expertise in
this field,
it is feared that Pakistan may not
be able to take full benefits of
upcoming port related project
such as Gwadar, Pasni, Ormara
& Keti Bunder.
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Introduction
For effective utilization of indigenous
manpower & resources it is a must
that we should train properly
qualified professional in this field for
long them construction, operation
and maintenance of these facilities.

Hence there exist a promising


market for absorption of these
expertise. 16
Section – II

Field of Studies in
Coastal & Harbor
Engineering

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Section – II
Ocean & Coastal Engineering
Port Planning and Design
Coastal Processes
Coastal Management
Soil Mechanics in Coastal
Engineering
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Section – II
Marine Geology
Marine Dredging
Offshore Engineering Analysis
Computational Hydraulics
Design of Marine Structures
Marine Pollution & Control
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Section – II
Environmental Aspects of
Coasts and Harbors.
Coastal and Offshore
Engineering.
Geo-technical & Foundation
Engineering for Marine
Structures.

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Section – II
Structural Design Of Marine
Structures.
Port Engineering
Oceanography
Port Navigation & Project
Management.
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PORT PLANNING AND DESIGN
Master planning of ports.
Planning Of Bulk Terminals.
Port Administration.
Port Management
Port Structures
Port planning
Marine Transport
Merchant Shipping

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ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF
COASTS AND HARBORS.

Water Resources Development


Environmental Aspects Of Harbors.
Environmental Impact Assessment.
Prevention and Combat of Oil Spills.
Pollution.
Ocean & Coastal Environment and
Conservation
Maritime Environment. 23
COASTAL AND OFFSHORE
ENGINEERING.

Coastal and Offshore Engineering.


Tides and Tidal Currents.
Salt Intrusion and Density Currents.
Short Waves & Ocean Waves.
Sediment Transport.
Ocean Engineering
Coastal Zone Management.
Estuary Engineering
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GEOTECHNICS & FOUNDATION
ENGINEERING FOR MARINE
STRUCTURES.
Soil Mechanics & Soil Investigations.
Marine Geo-technical Investigations.
Groundwater Flow.
Building Pits.
Foundation Engineering.
Sheet Pile Design.
Slope Stability.
Quay Wall Design.
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STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF
MARINE STRUCTURES.

Basic Structural Analysis.


Ship Dynamic
Design of Offshore Structures.
Offshore Berthing Structure
Breakwater Design
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PORT ENGINEERING
Access Channels.
Dikes, Revetments & Tidal
Channels.
Barriers & Outlet Sluices.
Sea Outfalls & Intakes.
Navigation Locks.
Berthing Fenders.
Inland Navigation.
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Dredging, Port Navigation &
Project Management.
Dredging & Dredging Equipment.
Dredging And Reclamation For Port
and Harbor Management.
Heavy Duty Pavement for Ports.
Aids To Navigation.
Hydrographic Surveys.
Projects Management
Project Planning and Economics. 28
Oceanography

◆ Oceanography
◆ Ocean Engineering Wave Mechanics.
◆ Ocean Materials.
◆ Design Of Ocean Engineering Facilities.
◆ Underwater & Moored System Design.
◆ Dynamic Of Offshore Structures.

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Section – III

The General Aspects


of
Port & Harbors
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The General Aspects of P & H

The word port can be used for any


place where goods or passengers
are transferred from one mode of
transport to one or more other
modes.
For example, seaports, inland ports,
airports, but also stations (railway
ports), truck- terminals,etc.
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The General Aspects of P & H
The word port is usually connected in
our mind with a place where goods (and
/ or passengers) are transferred from
waterborne modes to land-borne modes
such as trucks, railway cars, pipelines,
etc. or vice-versa.

More specifically: a sea port is the place


where seagoing vessels are being
loaded and / or unloaded.
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The General Aspects of P & H
A seaport is a very important element in the
economic and social life of a country or
region.
Through the port, access to the world
markets may be obtained for the country's
export-produces and the necessary imports
may be received in the most economic way,
saving foreign currency.
Furthermore, under certain conditions, the
port itself can be an important source of
foreign currency earnings.
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The General Aspects of P & H

It is also clear that the port,


a particularly the general-cargo port
can provide many and varied jobs,
directly or indirectly connected with the
loading / unloading of ships and the
distribution of the goods.

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The General Aspects of P & H

A port can only be benefit to the


country and the people when it is
properly laid-out sufficiently
equipped and operated
efficiently,
so that the ships and the goods they
carry can be handled safely and
efficiently.
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The General Aspects of P & H

Technological improvements in
recent years have made it
essential to plan the transportation
system of a developing country as
a whole,
in order to achieve a balance
between the capacities of the
various parts.
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The General Aspects of P & H

Planning a sea-port without considering the


connecting road, Rail and barge facilities
may lead to serious faults in national
communications.

This is particularly true in the case of


developing countries, in many of which the
freight traffic is rapidly growing and
changing.
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The General Aspects of P & H

Within the ports sector, a


balanced plan is needed for
each class of maritime traffic.

The number of ports their


specialization and their location
have to be considered.
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The General Aspects of P & H
Recent development trends in port
engineering are characterized by the need
to accommodate vessels with greater
drafts.

Tankers for crude oil have reached close


to 0.6 million DWT (dead weight tons).

Ore carriers of almost 0.4 million DWT


have been built.

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The General Aspects of P & H
The largest container vessels are
now 50,000 to 60,000 DWT with
space to hold about 4,000 TEU
containers with speeds up to 32
knots.

Unitized transport by containers and


pallets including roll-on roll-off
(ro/ro) transport has also expanded
rapidly.
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The General Aspects of P & H

This has required the development of


special port installations and
transportation systems.

It has also contributed to the development


of a new port engineering field called
"terminal technology," which concerns
use of marine terminals for a great variety
of purposes.
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The General Aspects of P & H

Port development for bulk carriers


includes facilities for mooring of tankers
in the open sea either at buoys or at
platforms with no connection to land other
than a pipeline for loading and unloading
oil.

Open sea loading terminals for ore carriers


are usually connected to land by a bridge
structure carrying conveyors and other
necessary installations.
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The General Aspects of P & H
It should be noted that in any industry the cost of
a manufactured article depends upon the price of
the raw material delivered to the manufacturer,
i.e., the cost of the material itself at source plus
transport charges.

With steel, it has been estimated that about half


the cost is accounted for by the delivery cost of
the materials.

Thus, the lower the delivery cost for raw


materials from source to works, the more
competitive will be the price of the finished
article. 43
The General Aspects of P & H

Unit transport has become the most


aggressive mode of transportation during
recent decades, and its volume is
increasing steadily.

Lately, the developing countries have


entered the race, and are seeking rational
transports in units of still increasing
dimensions.

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The General Aspects of P & H

Rational handling of cargo is an important


development.
The key word to rational cargo handling is
unitizing.
Before any improvement can be obtained, the
cargo must be consolidated into larger units
suitable for mechanical handling.
There are two main systems of unitized
cargo:
the container system and
the pallet system
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Section – IV
Ports & Harbors
in Pakistan
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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

KARACHI
PORT

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

HISTORY OF KARACHI PORT

◆ Karachi due to its geographical and strategic


location is known as the gateway to Asia and
considered as a safe Harbor since long.

◆ However, the existing Port started taking shape in


1854, when the projects of dredging the main
navigable channel and the construction of a mole
or causeway joining the main harbor with the rest
of the city were undertaken.

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

About 5 years later, construction of


Manora Breakwater was started.

The construction of the wharves started in


1882.

Most of these facilities were obsolete by


the time Pakistan came into existence in
1947.
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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

Since then, the port administration


has embarked on extensive
development of the port on modern
lines.

The 12 km long marked channel


dredged from 11 to 13m provides for
day and night access to east / west
wharves and oil piers.
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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

At the time of independence in 1947,


the Port capacity was about 1.5 million
tons of dry cargo and 1.0 million tons of
P.O.L. products per annum.

Karachi Port is now handling over 14


million tons of liquid cargo and 12 million
tons of dry cargo.

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

The port is known for handling of


molasses, rice, fertilizer, steel,
general cargo and various liquid
products.

Two private container terminal with


all modern facilities caters to the
needs of containerized trade.
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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

The Port also has plans in hand


to further upgrade existing
facilities and undertake new
projects to facilitate the shipping
and trade.

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan
To meet the future challenges and
accommodate big vessels, which were
presently in use, KPT is planning for
establishment of an 18-metre deep draft
container terminal at the Keamari Groyne.

A total of 10 berths were being envisaged


in three stages and the terminal would
have 3,500 meters quay wall.

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan
The first phase would see a 700
meters quay wall complemented by
two break waters and a 600-metre
wide channel for smooth turning of
ships.
A large number of foreign companies
are showing keen interest in this
project for which dedicated road
shows were currently going on for
interested parties.
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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

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Ports & Harbors in Pakistan

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Thank You

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