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Co ronary A ther oscl er otic

He ar t Disease

Andr ew D . B el us o, RN
At heros cler os is
 Athero sc leros is is a syndrome
affecting arterial blood vessels. It is a
chronic inflammatory response in the
walls of arteries . It is commonly
referred to as a hardening or furring of
the arteries. It is caused by the
formation of multiple plaques within the
Risk Fa ctors f or
At her os cleros is
 Age :
 Male > 45 years
 Female > 55 years or premature menopause
without estrogen replacement therapy
 Fa mil y H ist ory of prema tu re d isea se
 Male first-degree relative <55 years
 Female first-degree relative < 65 years
Risk Fact ors for
At her os cleros is
 Hyperte nsio n
 Appears to weaken the artery wall at
points of high pressure leading to
injury and invasion of cholesterol.
 Ci ga rette S moki ng
 #1 cause of preventable death in US
 1 in 5 CHD deaths attributable to

Risk Fact ors for
At her os cleros is
 Diabetes
 50% of deaths related to DM is
due to CHD
Risk Fact ors for
At her os cleros is
 In activ it y
 Sedentary person has 2x risk
for developing CHD as a
person who is active.
Risk Fact ors for
At her os cleros is
 Obesi ty
Risk Fact ors for
At her os cleros is
 Abn orma l Bl ood Li pi ds
 LDL Cholesterol (low density

 HDL Cholesterol (high density

Ris k Fa ct or s
Unc ont rol la ble Cont rol la bl e

•Sex •High blood pressure

•High blood cholesterol
•Physical activity
•Stress and anger
At he rosclerosi s

 Plaque is made up of fat,

cholesterol, calcium, and
other substances found in
the blood. Over time,
plaque hardens and
narrows your arteries. The
flow of oxygen-rich blood to
your organs and other parts
of your body is reduced.
This can lead to serious
problems, including
heart attack, stroke, or
even death.
 Plaque (the
build-up of
) in the artery
wall forms as a
response to
injury to the
endothelium in
the artery wall.
Plaque vulnerability factors
In tr ins ic f acto rs
 Many people are able to manage
coronary artery disease with lifestyle
changes and medications.

 Other people with severe coronary

artery disease may need angioplasty or
Treatmen t:

 Wei ght Los s

 Low cholest erol, low sa tu ra ted fa t
di et
 Increa sed physi ca l activi ty
 Smoki ng cess ati on
 Ma na gement of Dia bet es
 Rest ri cted alcohol use
Medi ci ne
 1. an tip lat el et ag gre ga ti on
Aspi ri n ,ti clop idi ne, clop idogrel , GPIIb/IIIa
rece ptor antag oni st

2. r egu lat e lip id

For hy percholes terol emia: Sta tin s,
Ch ol esty ramin e, Coles ti pol, Nicoti ni nc acid ;
For Hypert rig lyceri dema: Cl ofi brate .

3 . thromb oly si s
streptokinase, urokinase
Angio pla st y
Bypass su rger y
•Get regular medical checkups.
•Control your blood pressure.
•Check your cholesterol.
•Don’t smoke.
•Exercise regularly.
•Maintain a healthy weight.
•Eat a heart-healthy diet.
•Manage stress.