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WHAT IS A PROJECT?

Projects are unique. Projects are temporary in nature and have a definite beginning and ending date. Projects are completed when the project goals are achieved. A successful project is one that meets or exceeds the expectations of your stakeholders.

Project is Progressively Elaborated


Distinguishing characteristics of each unique project will be progressively detailed as the project is better understood
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WHAT IS A PROJECT?
A complex, non-routine, one-time effort limited by time, budget, resources, and performance specifications designed to meet customer needs.

(OR)
A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result
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ELEMENTS OF PROJECTS
Complex, one-time processes Limited by budget, schedule, and resources Developed to resolve a clear goal or set of goals Customer-focused

Every project is constrained in different ways by its: Scope: What work will be done as part of the project? What unique product, service, or result does the customer or sponsor expect from the project? Time: How long should it take to complete the project? What is the projects schedule? Cost: What should it cost to complete the project? What is the projects budget?

PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS

A Project is successful when it achieves its objectives and meets or exceeds the expectations of the stakeholders. Stakeholders are those folks (or organizations) with a vested interest in your project. The PROJECT SPONSOR, generally an executive in the organization with the authority to assign resources and enforce decisions regarding the project, is a Stakeholder.
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A set of interrelated actions and activities that are performed to achieve a prespecified set of products, results, or services
Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, the Project Management Institute, 4th . Ed., 2010

PROJECT Vs OPERATION

PROJECT Take place outside the process world Unique and separate from normal organization work
Projects: Examples 1. Writing a term paper 2. Developing a supply-chain information system 3. Designing an iPod that is approximately 2 X 4 inches, interfaces with PC, and stores 10,000 songs

OPERATION Ongoing, day-to-day activities


Use existing systems, properties, and capabilities
Routine, Repetitive Work: Examples
1. Taking class notes 2. Responding to a supply-chain request 3. Routine manufacture of an Apple iPod

IS IT A PROJECT or OPERATION?
Consider the following scenario:
You work for a wireless phone provider, and the VP of marketing approaches you with a fabulous idea fabulous because hes the big boss and because he thought it up. He wants to set up Stalls in local grocery and bigbox stores as minioffices. These offices will offer customers the ability to sign up for new wireless phone services, make their wireless phone bill payments, and purchase equipment and accessories. He believes that the exposure in grocery stores will increase awareness of the companys offerings. After all, everyone has to eat, right? He told you that the board of directors has already cleared the project, and he will dedicate as many resources to this as he can. He wants the new Stalls in place in 12 stores by the end of this year. The best news is he has assigned you to head up this project. Your first question should be IS IT A PROJECT?

1. 2. 3. 4.

Projects are unique. Projects are temporary in nature and have a definite beginning and ending date. Projects are completed when the project goals are achieved. A successful project is one that meets or exceeds the expectations of your stakeholders.

IS IT A PROJECT or OPERATION?

IS IT UNIQUE? Yes, Because the Stalls dont exist now in the local grocery

stores. This is a new way of offering the companys services to its customer base. Although the service the company is offering isnt new, the way it is presenting its services is.

DOES THE PROJECT HAVE A LIMITED TIME FRAME? Yes, the start
date of this project is today, and end date is the end of this year. It is a temporary endeavor.

IS THERE A WAY TO DETERMINE WHEN THE PROJECT IS COMPLETED? Yes, the stalls will be installed, and services will be offered from
them. Once all the stalls are intact and operating, the project will come to a close.

IS THERE A WAY TO DETERMINE STAKEHOLDER SATISFACTION? Yes, the expectations of the stakeholders will be documented in
the form of deliverables and requirements during the Planning processes. Some of the requirements the VP noted are that customers can sign up for new services, pay their bills, and purchase equipment and accessories. These deliverables and requirements will be compared to the finished product to determine whether it meets the expectations of the stakeholders.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT
A method and a set of techniques based on the accepted principles of management used for planning, estimating and

controlling work activities to reach a desired end result on


time within budget and according to specification.
Robert K. Wysocki / Robert Beck Jr. / David B. Crane, Effective Project Management, 2. ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2002, p. 79

Project management is the planning, organizing, directing, and

controlling of company resources for a relatively short-term


objective that has been established to complete specific goals and objectives.
Harold Kerzner, Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planing, Scheduling and Controlling, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York et. al., 7. ed, 2001, p. 4

SKILLS EVERY GOOD PROJECT MANAGER NEEDS


Project managers are like small business owners
General management skills Application skills Communication skills

Organizational and planning skills


Budgeting skills Conflict management (Problem Solving) skills Negotiation and influencing skills Leadership skills Team building and motivating skills

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES


Based on Plan-do-check-act cycle (as defined by Shewhart and modified by Deming) The project management processes are aggregated into five groups, defined as the project management process groups
Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring and Control Closing

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Initiating

PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES GROUPS

Defines and authorizes the project or a project phase

Planning
Defines and refines objectives, and plans the course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project was undertaken to address

Executing
Integrates people and other resources to carry out the project management plan for the project

Monitoring and Control


Regularly measures and monitors progress to identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives

Closing
Formalizes acceptance of the product, service or result and brings 11 the project or a project phase to an orderly end

PROJECT Vs PRODUCT

PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

A deliverable is a product or service produced or provided as part of a project

PROJECT LIFE CYCLE (Cont)


HANDOFFS: Project phases evolve through the life cycle in a series of phases sequences called handoffs, or technical transfers. The end of one phase sequence typically marks the beginning of the next. FAST TRACKING: There are times when phases are overlapped to shorten or compress the project schedule. This is called Fast Tracking. Fast tracking means that a later phase is started prior to completing and approving the phase, or phases, that come before it. This technique is used to shorten the overall duration of the project

PROJECT LIFE CYCLE (Cont)


PHASE-TO-PHASE RELATIONSHIPS:
There are three basic types of phase to phase relationships :

A Sequential relationship: where a phase can only


start once the previous phase is complete.

An Overlapping relationship: where the phase starts

prior to completion of the previous one ( Fast tracking ). Overlapping phase may increase risk and can result in rework.

An Iterative relationship: where only one phase is

planned at any given time and the planning for the next is carried out as work progresses on the current phase and deliverables

A program is basically a group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually.

Schools Constuction

Teachers Hiring

Facilities Maintenance

Elementry Education

Teachers training

Private schools asst

Special Initiatives

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A collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped togather to facilitate effective managmement of that work to meet strategic business objecives. The projects or program of the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related.

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An infrastructure firm with strategic objective of

maximizing the return on its investments


Have mix of projects of oil and gas, power, roads, rail. For this mix, the firm may choose to manage related proejects as one program. All of the power projects may be grouped togather as power program. Similary, all of the water projects may be grouped togather as a water program. The overall company business come under portfolio mgt.
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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

Projectized Strong Matrix Balanced Matrix Weak Matrix Functional

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION
The organization is grouped by areas of specialization within different functional areas. Projects generally occur within a single department. Information required from other department will be routed through departmental heads. Team members complete project work in addition to normal department work.
ADVANTAGES Easier management of specialists Team member report to only one supervisor Similar resources are centralized Clearly defined career path DISADVANTAGES People put more emphasis on specialty rather than on the project No career path in project management Project manager has little or no authority

PROJECTIZED ORGANIZATION
The entire company is organized by projects. The project manager has control of projects. Personnel are assigned and report to a project manager. Team members complete only project work and when its over they don't have HOME. Communication generally occurs only within the project. ADVANTAGES Efficient project organization Loyalty to the project More effective communication than functional DISADVANTAGES No home when project is completed Duplication of facilities and job functions Less efficient use of resource

WEAK MATRIX ORGANIZATION


Two Bosses Team members reports to Project Manager and Functional Manager Team members do project work in addition to normal departmental work Power rests with functional manager Project Manager plays a role of: Project Expediter: Cannot take decision. Staff assistant and Communication coordinator. Project Coordinator: Similar to Project Expeditor except has some power to take decision.

BALANCED MATRIX
Two Bosses Team members reports to Project Manager and Functional Manager Team members do project work in addition to normal departmental work Power is shared between the functional and project manager

STRONG MATRIX
Power rests with the Project Manager

MATRIX ORGANIZATION
ADVANTAGES Improved project manager control over resources More support from functional organization Better horizontal and vertical distribution of information than functional DISADVANTAGES Extra administration required More than one boss for project teams More complex to monitor and control Higher potential for conflict

PROJECT KNOWLEDGE AREAS (Cont)


PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT:

PROJECT SCOPE MANAGEMENT:

PROJECT TIME MANAGEMENT:

PROJECT KNOWLEDGE AREAS (Cont) PROJECT COST MANAGEMENT:


PROJECT QUALITY MANAGEMENT:

PROJECT HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT:

PROJECT COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT:

PROJECT KNOWLEDGE AREAS (Cont)

PROJECT RISK MANAGEMENT:

PROJECT PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT:

QUESTIONS

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