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Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure

Chapter 6

Chapter Overview
1. 2. 3. Functions A. Classification B. Structure C. Bone types Bone tissue
A. B. Bone matrix Bone cells Compact Spongy

4.

Bone Structure
A. B.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Periosteum & Endosteum Bone Formation and Growth Exercise, Hormones, and Nutrition Calcium Homeostasis Fractures Osteopenia

1. Skeletal System Functions


Skeletal system includes
Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues

5 Primary Functions:
Support Storage of minerals (calcium) & lipids (yellow marrow)

Blood cell production (red marrow- RBCs & WBCs)


Protection Leverage (force of motion)

2A. Classification of Bones


Bones are classified by
Shape Internal tissue organization Bone markings (surface features; marks)

Flat bones
Thin with parallel surfaces Found in the skull, sternum, ribs, scapulae

Long bones
Long and thin Found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, toes

Sutural bones
c

Small, irregular bones Found between the flat bones of the skull

Irregular bones
Have complex shapes Examples: spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones

Short bones
c c

Small and thick Examples: ankle and wrist bones


c

Sesamoid bones
Small and flat Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, feet

Bone Markings
Depressions or grooves
Along bone surface

Projections or elevations
Where tendons and ligaments attach
At articulations with other bones

Tunnels
Where blood and nerves enter bone

*You will learn these in lab! Not on your exam.

*You will learn these in lab! Not on your exam.

2B. Structure of a Long Bone


Diaphysis- the shaft
Heavy wall of compact bone Central space- medullary (marrow) cavity

Epiphysis- wide part at each end


Articulation with other bones Mostly spongy bone covered with compact bone

Metaphysis
Where diaphysis & epiphysis meet

2C. Bone Types


Compact (dense) bone
Relatively solid Surrounds medullary cavity (marrow cavity) Makes up diaphysis

Cancellous (spongy or trabecular) bone


Open network of struts & plates Resembles lattice work with thin covering of compact bone called the cortex (cortical bone) Red bone marrow, no medullary cavity

Compact Bone

Spongy Bone

Diploe- in cranium, layer of spongy bone between cortex

3. Bone (Osseous) Tissue


Supportive connective tissue
Dense connective tissue Cartilage Bone

Periosteum- covers outer surfaces of bones, except at


joints (outer fibrous & inner cellular layers)

Contains specialized cells & matrix Matrix- extracellular protein fibers & ground substance
Solid matrix- calcium salt deposits around collagen fibers

3A. Matrix of Bone


Matrix Minerals
2/3 bone matrix- calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2 Reacts with calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 to form crystals of hydroxyapatite As crystals form- incorporate other calcium salts (calcium carbonate, CaCO3) and ions (magnesium, sodium, fluoride)
calcium phosphate + calcium hydroxide hydroxyapatite

Matrix Proteins
1/3 bone matrix- protein fibers (collagen)
*You do not need to memorize the molecular formula of the minerals

Bone Matrix
Strong as steel reinforced concrete! Calcium phosphate- hard, withstand compression, but not bending/twisting Collagen fibers- flexible, withstand bending/twisting, little resistance to compression Together- strong, somewhat flexible, shatter resistance bone

3B. Types of Bone Cells


Make up only 2% of bone mass, bone mostly matrix

Canaliculi Form pathways for blood vessels Exchange nutrients and wastes

builders

most abundant

Osteocytes
Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix Each osteocyte occupies a lacuna
Lacunae- pocket between layers of matrix (lamellae)

Osteocytes do NOT divide!


Canaliculi (narrow passageways) penetrate lamellae - radiate through matrix, connecting lacunae & nutrient sources
Cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes occupy canaliculi

Osteocytes Functions
To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
Bones are dynamic- constantly changing! Break down matrix & build it back again

To help repair damaged bone


*Can convert to less specialized cell type if released from lacuna.

Osteoblasts- immature bone cells


1. Osteogenesis- secrete organic bone matrix
Proteins, etc. before calcium salts are deposited Osteoid- matrix produced by osteoblasts, not yet calcified

2. Elevate local concentrations of calcium phosphate above solubility limit, triggers deposition of calcium salts
Converts osetoid to bone

Osteoblasts surrounded by bone become osteocytes

Types of Bone Cells

Osteoprogenitor cell osteoblast osteocyte

Stem cells

break down (crack)

Osteoprogenitor Cells
Mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce
osteoblasts Are located in endosteum, the inner, cellular layer of periosteum Assist in fracture repair

Osteoclasts
Giant, multinucleate cells remove & recycle bone matrix
Derived from stem cells that produce macrophages

Secrete acids & protein-digesting enzymes dissolve bone matrix & release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Important in maintaining calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids

Maintaining Bone
Homeostasis: building = breakdown
Bone building (osteoblasts) and bone recycling (osteoclasts) must balance
More breakdown than building, bones become weak

Exercise, particularly weight-bearing


exercise, causes osteoblasts to build bone

4A. Structure of Compact Bone


Osteon- basic functional unit in mature compact bone
Haversian System

Osteocytes are arranged in concentric lamellae around a central canal containing blood vessels
Run parallel to bone surgafe Perforating Canals- run perpendicular to central canal
Canals of Volkmann Carry blood vessels into deep bone and marrow

Histology of Compact Bone

Histology of Compact Bone

4A. Structure of Compact Bone


Interstitial lamellae- fill spaces between osteons in compact bone
Remnants of osteons whose matrix have almost been entirely recycled by osteoclasts

Circumferential Lamellae
Lamellae on outter/inner bone surface, covered by periosteum & endosteum respectively Produced during growth of bone

Structure of Compact Bone

Structure of Compact Bone


Force applied along the axis of alignment- will not bend bone (the weight of your body will not break your femur) Collagen fibers spiral- adds strength & resiliency Force applied sudden sideways force to femur- break

4B. Structure of Spongy Bone


No osteons- struts & plates called trabeculae
Trabeculae have no blood vessels Nutrients diffuse along canaliculi Lighter than compact bone Withstand stresses from many different directions

Red bone marrow -fills space between trabeculae


Blood vessels, forms red blood cells Supplies nutrients to osteocytes, removes wastes

Yellow marrow- stores fat

Structure of Spongy Bone

5. c
Periosteum- superficial layer of compact bone (except joint cavities)
2 layers- outer fibrous layer, inner cellular layer

Functions Isolates bone from surrounding tissues Provides route for circulatory and nervous supply Participates in bone growth and repair

Joints- periosteum becomes continuous with connective tissues (joint capsule, tendons, ligaments)
Perforating fibers- collagen fibers of the periosteum

The Periosteum

5. Periosteum & Endosteum


Endosteum lines the medullary cavity & covers trabecullae of spongy bone
Incomplete cellular layer Active in bone growth and repair Contains osteoblasts, osteoprogenitor cells, and osteoclasts

The Endosteum

6. Bone Formation and Growth


Human bones grow ~25 yrs old
Osteogenesis- bone formation Ossification- process of replacing
other tissues with bone

Calcification- process of depositing


calcium salts Occurs during bone ossification Can occur in other tissues

Ossification
Two main forms of ossification
Endochondral ossification- bone replaces cartilage
Most bones originate as hyaline cartilage

Intramembranous ossification- bone develops directly from mesenchyme or fibrous connective tissue
Dermal ossification- occurs in dermis Produces dermal bones- mandible (lower jaw) and clavicle (collarbone)

Endochondral Ossification
-cartilage enlarges -chondrocytes increase in size

-lacunae expand
-matrix reduces to thin struts that begin to calcify -chondrocytes deprived of nutrientsno diffusion

-blood vessels grow into perichondrium -inner layer cells differentiate into osteoblasts, -osteoblasts begin producing thin layer of bone -

-chondrocytes become surrounded by calcified cartilage, die

Endochondral Ossification
-blood vessels penetrate cartilage, central region -fibroblasts migrate in, differentiate into osteoblasts -osteoblasts produce spongy bone (primary ossification center) -bone formation spreads along shaft

-remodeling continues as growth occurs


-osteoclasts appear & degrade trabeculae in the center of diaphysis (medullary cavity) -growth continues in length & diameter

Endochondral Ossification
-centers of epiphyses begin to calcify -epiphyses become filled with spongy bone -articular cartilage remains exposed at joint cavity -overtime reduces to thin superficial layer

-capillaries, osteoblasts migrate in, (secondary ossification center) -

-at metaphysis, epiphyseal cartilage separates epiphyses from diaphysis

Epiphyseal Lines
When long bone stops growing, after puberty epiphyseal cartilage disappears

Appositional Growth
In early endochondral ossification, a superficial layer of bone forms, then bone increase in diameter (outer surface) Appositional Growth
Cells of inner layer of periosteum differentiate into osetoblasts, deposit superficial layers of bone matrix Osteoblasts become surrounded by matrix- differentiate into osteocytes Add series of layers form circumferential lamellae

Intramembranous Ossification
-mesenchymal cells cluster together and start secreting organic components of matrix -resulting osteoid becomes mineralized as mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts -developing bone grow outward from ossification center (where ossification begins) in spicules -ossification trap osteoblasts, differentiate into osteocyte

Intramembranous Ossification

-Blood vessels grow into the area -Spicules grow and fuse together, trap blood vessels within developing bone

Intramembranous Ossification
-Initially, intrmebraneous bone only spongy bone
-Remodeling produce osteons of compact bone -Growth slows, periosteum forms
-connetive tissue forms fibrous outer layer -osteoblasts outer surface become inner cellular layer

Blood Supply of Mature Bones


Bones very dynamic- constant remodeling Three major sets of blood vessels develop
Nutrient artery and vein:
Single pair of large blood vessels, supply bood to diaphysis Enter the diaphysis through the nutrient foramen during endochondral ossification Femur has more than one pair

Metaphyseal vessels:
Supply blood to the epiphyseal cartilage where bone growth occurs

Periosteal vessels provide:


Blood to superficial osteons of the shaft Blood to secondary ossification centers during endochondral bone formation

Periosteum also contains


Networks of lymphatic vessels Sensory nerves Bone injuries very painful!

6. Bone Remodeling
Adult skeleton very dynamic- continually remodels,
recycles, and replaces

Replaces mineral reserves Recycles and renews bone matrix Involves osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts
Turnover rate varies
If deposition is greater than removal, bones get stronger If removal is faster than replacement, bones get weaker

Store heavy metal ions in bone (lead, uranium,


plutonium)
Cancer later in life as bone releases ions

7. Exercise Effects on Bone


Bone is stressed, mineral crystals generate electrical fields, attracts osteoblasts which produce bone Mineral recycling allows bones to adapt to stress
Heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger Lifting weights highly beneficial

Bone Degeneration
Bone degenerates quickly Up to one third of bone mass can be lost in a few weeks of inactivity
Break leg, astronaut, paralyzed

7. Hormone & Nutritional Effects on Bone


Normal bone growth and maintenance requires nutritional and hormonal factors
Constant dietary source of calcium and phosphate salts
Small amounts of magnesium, fluoride, iron, manganese

Calcitriol- hormone made in the kidneys


Helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from digestive tract Synthesis requires vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol)

Vitamin C- required for collagen synthesis, and stimulation of osteoblast differentiation Vitamin A- stimulates osteoblast activity Vitamins K and B12 help synthesize bone proteins Calcitonin & parathyroid hormone regulate calcium & phosphate levels

8. Calcium Homeostasis
Skeleton act as a calcium reserve
Bones store calcium and other minerals Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body Calcium ions are vital to:
Membranes & intracellular activities of neurons & muscle cells, especially heart cells
Too much calcium muscle & nerve cells unresponsive Not enough calcium- neurons so excitable, convulsions 50% reduction of calcium lead to death!

Calcium Homeostasis
Calcium tightly regulated in body Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone
Control storage, absorption, and excretion Calcitonin- thyroid gland Parathyroid hormone- parathyroid gland

Target
Bones- storage Digestive tract- absorption Kidneys- excretion

Calcium Homeostasis
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Produced by parathyroid glands in neck Increases calcium ion levels by
Stimulating osteoclasts, enhancing recycling of minerals by osteocytes Increasing intestinal absorption of calcium Decreasing calcium excretion at kidneys

Calcitonin
Secreted by C cells (parafollicular cells) in thyroid Decreases calcium ion levels by
Inhibiting osteoclast activity Increasing calcium excretion at kidneys

9. Fractures
Cracks or breaks in bones caused by physical stress Major types of fractures:
Pott fracture- ankle, affects both bones
Comminuted fractures- shattered Transverse fractures- break across access

Spiral fractures- twisting stresses


Displaced fractures- abnormal bone arrangements Colles fracture- break distal portion of radius Greenstick fracture- 1 side of shaft broken, other bends Epiphyseal fractures- where bone is undergoing calcification Compression fractures- vertebrae under extreme stress

-Extensive bleeding, large blood clot (fracture hematoma) closes off injured vessels -Establishes a fibrous network -Bone cells in the area die

-Cells of periosteum & endosteum rapid division & migrate in -External callus forms, stabalizes outer edges -Internal callus forms in medullary cavity

Fractures are repaired in 4 steps

-Osteoblasts replace central cartilage of external callus with spongy bone -Struts of spongy bone unite broken ends -Fragments of dead bone removed & replaced

-Cells continue remodeling ~1 yr -Initially swelling -Eventually calluses are removed

10. Osteopenia
Bones become thinner and weaker with age Osteopenia- inadequate ossification
Begins between ages 30 and 40- osteoblast activity drops, osteoclast activity remains constant Women lose 8% of bone mass per decade, men 3%

Epiphyses, vertebrae, and jaws are most affected:


Resulting in fragile limbs Reduction in height Tooth loss

Osteoporosis- reduction in bone mass compromises normal function


Severe bone loss & easily fractured
Over age 45, occurs in 29% of women,18% of men

Aging
Hormones and Bone Loss
Estrogens and androgens help maintain bone mass
Bone loss in women accelerates after menopause

Cancer and Bone Loss


Cancerous tissues release osteoclast-activating factor

Stimulates osteoclasts & produces severe


osteoporosis

Important Concepts
Skeletal functions Bone shapes (dont need to memorize markings) Bone structure Difference between compact/spongy bone Structure of each What makes up bone matrix Cell types/functions Describe periosteum & endosteum

Important Concepts
Describe process of bone formation- endochondral ossification & intramembranous ossification Describe how exercise affects bone formation How do hormones/nutrients influence bone formation Describe calcium homeostasis by calcitonin and parathyroid hormone Describe how fractures are healed (do not need to memorize fracture types) Osteopenia/osteoporosis