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Before you can understand the topics in this unit there are some key vocabulary terms you

need to know.

Macromolecule Polymer Monomer

Oooooh, BIG ScaRy Science word!

What do these words mean?

So What Is A Macromolecule?
You should be able to define it on your own !

Next Word..

Polygons Polyester Polygamy

What does Mono mean?

A Polymer
Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are.



If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers

A Polymer
Here are some analogies to better understand what polymers and monomers are.



If the train is the whole polymer, what would be the small groups that make up the train If the necklace is the polymer, what are the monomers

Now you and your lab partner

need to think of at least 2 other analogies for a polymer and its monomers.
!rite your analogies in your "ournal#

$ & '

The Big 4
There are 4 types of biochemical macromolecules
What does Bio-Chemical mean?
Break it down: How do you define bio? How do you define chemical?

Then what is a BIOchemical macromolecule?

!"rite your answers in your #ournal$

Three out of the 4 types of biochemical macromolecules can be found on food nutrition labels

Look at the label to the left. 3 of the 4 macromolecules can be found in foods. The 3 biochemical molecules found on a nutrition label are: (0 grams in this product) 1____________________
(13 grams in this product) 2____________________

(9 grams in this product) 3____________________

(he 'th type o) biochemical macromolecules are the

%&'()I' *'I+,
(he types o) *ucleic +cids we will study are, - .*+ .eo/yribo*ucleic +cid# - R*+ Ribo*ucleic +cid#

DNA is short for

DeoxyriboNucleic Acid
Now you know why they just call it DNA!

Answer the questions in your journal in complete sentences.

When studying these biochemical molecules, we are interested in finding out..

what they do for living things. what they generally look like. what their monomers are. and how they may help the body gain energy to sustain life.


You are about to learn all about

BI- ..


'reate an organi/ed way to record the information in your #ournal. You will learn about0 %ucleic *cids 'arbohydrates do1"here are (ipids up of2 "hat they look like "hat they they "hat are they made at the level of atoms


4hey are the main source for the body to gain energy. 4hey are our fuel! 4hey make up the cell wall in plants which allow them to grow tall, without this carbohydrate, a plant would be a mushy mess! 4his type of carbohydrate is called Cellulose. 43I%50 "*((, '*6B,7 )%)6-Y and ')((

0In plant foods2 in the cell walls of plants 222 in fruits, vegetables, peas, beans, ,&-*6 comes from a plant and so does 8(9&6! !pasta, potatoes, bread, candy, cookies$ 22222222222222222222222222222222222222222

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Simple Sugars are carbohydrates made up of 1 or 2 monomers. They also taste sweet.

Simple Sugars

Complex Carbohydrates What are they?

Complex Cabohydrates are polymers made up of many monomers. Most also taste starchy.

Complex Carbohydrates

'arbohydrates are chains !polymers$ made of monomers. 4he most common monomer of carbohydrates is<

The shape of Glucose is a hexagonal ring

)ach carbohydrate is made up of<

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Answer the questions in your journal in complete sentences.


4hey are the ma#or structural molecules in living things for growth and repair 0 muscles, ligaments, tendons, bones, hair, skin, nails<I% 8*'4 *(( ')(( M)MB6*%), have protein in them 4hey make up antibodies in the immune system 4hey make up en/ymes for helping chemical reactions 4hey makeup non2steriod hormones which 43I%50 Proteins7 membranes, en/ymes, antibodies, non2steriod hormones, structural

4he following slides give you a little more in depth info on things that are made of proteins<

Muscles, ligaments, tendons, and bones

Without these particular structural proteins, we would look more like this.

!ell, maybe not e/actly

Hair, Skin, and Nails

Microscope View of Skin and Nails

This is skin

This is a nail

Cell Membrane

The cell membrane surrounds everything in a cell so it doesnt leak out. It is kind of like the balloon in a water balloon. The cell membrane is made mostly of protein AND lipids.

Antibodies are part of the immune system. When something enters the body that isnt supposed to be there, like certain bacteria, antibodies find the invader and stick themselves onto it. When a white blood cell finds the invader covered with antibodies, it knows it doesnt belong there and kills it.

Enzymes are proteins that speed up chemical reactions. If you didnt have enzymes in your stomach to speed up digestion, the food would rot in your stomach because it would take so long!

3ormones are chemicals made in glands that are in one place in the body and then put into the blood to be used in another.

(hese are where the hormone producing glands are located in your body.

The thyroid is found in the middle of your neck, by your voice box. Here is a picture of those cells secreting the thyroid hormone.

!4he yellow stuff is thyroid hormone$

Thyroid hormone regulates how fast your body uses energy. If you have an over active thyroid, you use energy quickly and tend to be very thin and have a hard time putting on weight. If you have an under active thyroid gland, you use energy very slowly and tend to carry more body fat and have a difficult time losing it. Dont be quick to think you have a thyroid problem if you are overweight, chances are its actually your eating and exercise habits!

0In plant foods2 in the cell membranes 0In animal products2 in the cell membranes2 in the muscles or living things2 cows, chicken, fish<


*side from the protein found in animal sources< protein can also be found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts.
it "ust does not ha1e as many amino acids#

Proteins are made of long chains !polymers$ made of monomers. *ll proteins are made of the monomer<

The shapes of proteins are like a balled up piece of string

Amino Acid chain All woun d up

)ach protein is made up of<

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Answer the questions in your journal in complete sentences.


4hey are a great source of ,496)+ )%)6-Y so we have it in the future. 4hey I%,&(*4) the body to maintain normal body temperature and they '&,3I9% the internal organs for protection. 4hey produce hormones for the body called ,4)6I9+, 4hey waterproof surfaces of animals,plants, and fruits2 these are wa;es! 43I%50 "aterproof, insulate, steriods, energy, cushion< ="I,) '>

LIPIPSSome interesting info

02ruits produce a wa/y coating to 3eep )rom drying out. 0 (he cells in a tulip ma3e a wa/ which helps coat the lea1es. 04ar wa/ traps dust, sand, and other )oreign particles )rom going deeper into the ear and causing damage.

LIPIPSSome interesting info

4here are many different types of steroids. 4hey are all lipids. 4heir functions vary. ,ome common steroids are0 ,)? ,4)69I+, ,4)6I9+, *%*B9(I'

4hey increase (ike testosterone '39(),4)69( muscle and estrogen

LIPIPSSome interesting info

,ome anabolic %*4&6*( ,4)6I9+, I% 9&6 steroidsM&,'() are B9+Y I%'6)*,) illegal -69"43 *%+ B9%) +)@)(9PM)%4 *%+ *6) -99+. 43) I(()-*( 9%), 43*4 *6) ,Y%43)4I' *6) *nd can be dangerous B*+.

Very Common Effects of Illegal Steroids

I) used when the person is still growing, they will be shorter as an adult, anabolic steroids will decrease bone growth. ales will e/perience shrin3ing o) the testicles, and with prolo se, the steroid will be turned into estrogen in the male body a ll start to lay )atty tissue on the chest, otherwise 3nown as b I) genetically predisposed to becoming bald, balding will happen more I) clean needles are not readily 7uic3ly. a1ailable, there is a signi)icantly higher ris3 o) getting +I.S.

2uture ris3s o) li1er cancer 8 disease. 4nlarged heart one pro athlete9s heart grew to the si:e o) a bas3etballob1iously

Illegal Steroid Use in Women

Some additional e))ects
(he woman will start to grow )acial hair, how 7uic3ly depends on her genetic ma3eup. I) she discontinues use, the )acial hair will still continue to grow. I) she is genetically predisposed to balding, she will start to lose her hair, "ust as i) she was genetically male. Her 1oice will start to deepen, how 7uic3ly depends on her genetics. I) she discontinues use, her 1oice will remain deep.

ts will decrease in si:e, the opposite o) what happens to me

0In plants2 in the seeds 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 22222222 0In animals2 in adipose tissue, connective tissue, in animals 2222222222222222222222222222222222222222222 22222222


(ipids are chains !polymers$ made of monomers. 4he most common monomer of lipids is<

The Shape of a triglyceride is like the letter

This is a triglyceride molecule

)ach carbohydrate is made up of<

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You might have noticed that both carbohydrates and lipids have the elements Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. CHO

OH NO CHO! Lipids like Carbs?

A carbohydrate, has twice as many hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C6H12O6 (This is a carb= there are double the number of H compared to O)
On the other hand, lipids have a lot more than twice the amount hydrogen atoms as the number of oxygen atoms. EX: C27H46O cholesterol

Answer the questions in your journal in complete sentences.

Quick Review Questions

What Big 4 molecule stores energy for the future? What are 4 effects of illegal steroid use in men and 3 effects in women? What are 4 things proteins do in your body? What are the functions of lipids? What is the main function of carbohydrates?

Mini Quiz Examples of the Big 4

Each of the following foods is high in one of the Big 4 organic molecules. Decide which one for each of the following foods. Corn Oil Lean Ham Bread Fish


43)6) *6) : 4YP), 98 %&'()I' *'I+,



Nucleic Acids
1) DNA Is our genetic material. Chromosomes are made of DNA. Chromosomes contain the recipes to make proteins for your ody. 1) !NA !eads the DNA protein recipes and makes the proteins for your ody.

0In plants2 inside the nucleus of the cells 022222222222222222222222222222222222222222 2222222222 0In animals2 inside the nucleus of each cell 022222222222222222222222222222222222222222


%ucleic *cids are chains !polymers$ made of monomers. %ucleic acids are made up of
"hich are nitrogen bases< something we will learn more about when we study +%*

The shape of a nucleic acid is:

Nucleic Acids
)ach nucleic acid is made up of<

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4hree of the BI- . provide us with energy through the food weBIG eat0 Number of Calories it 4


Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids

)nergy that is gained by consuming food is called a

Energy that we gain by the consumption of food is measured in Calories.

If you drink a glass of skim milk, you will get a gain of 90 Calories of energy for your body.

Energy Gained From Carbohydrates

Eating 1 gram of carbohydrate provides your body with 4 Calories.

Energy Gained from Lipids

Eating 1 gram of fat provides your body with

9 Calories.
Notice if you eat 1 gram of fat, you are gaining more than twice the amount of Calories than from a gram of carbohydrate or protein!

*ucleic acids
(he nucleic acids in )ood are not considered a substance that the body uses to gain energy.

So, you wont find nucleic acids listed on a nutrition label!



Number of Calories it provides

Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids


4 4 9 0

Are you smart? If you eat a sandwhich with 46 grams of carbs and

24 grams of protein and 10 grams of fat, how much energy will you gain?

What elements are found in all of the Big 4 molecules? Which of the Big 4 has different elements and what are they? Since Carbohydrates and Lipids have the same elements in them, how can you tell the difference? Would C26H32O5 be a carbohydrate or lipid? Which molecule is in the shape of a hexagon? Which molecule is in the shape of an E? A polymer of amino acids makes what molecule?

Which one of the following molecules is a lipid? A carbohydrate?

1.) C27H46O (ipid 2.) C12H24O12 'arbohydrate

What kind of carbohydrate gives you a quick burst of energy? What kind of carbohydrate gives you long term energy? You are stranded on a desert island and have found a box of food. Considering you have almost nothing to eat on the island, which of the following would be the best food to have in the box? WHY? Crackers Butter Steak How many Calories are found in 1 gram of protein? How many Calories are in 1 gram of nucleic acid?

Final Review Questions

Please do not look back at the information in your handout until you have answered all of the following questions.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are 2 examples of simple sugars and 2 examples of complex carbohydrates not mentioned already? What is a polymer? What is a monomer? Carbohydrates are the bodys main source of ________________. Define in your own words: Biochemical Macromolecule 6. Proteins are major structural molecules in living things. List 5 places or things in your body that contain a lot of protein. 7. What are enzymes? What are they made of? 8. What are hormones? 9. What does your thyroid hormone do? 10. Name three types of proteins. 11. What are the functions of lipids? 12. What elements are found in each of the Big 4 molecules? 13. What does DNA do? RNA? 14. How many Calories are found in 1 gram of each of the Big 4 molecules? 15. What are 5 possible effects of illegal steroid use? 16. What are 3 functions of lipids? 17. What is the function of waxes? 18. What are 2 ways simple sugars are different from complex carbohydrates? 19. What are 4 organic macromolecules?