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Rancangan, sampling, issues, dan pengumpulan data dalam METODE KUALITATIF

By: Yayi Suryo Prabandari – IKM FK UGM 2013

RANCANGAN

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Skills for Core Process: Qualitative and Quantitative Methods

Rancangan Penelitian Kualitatif • Studi kasus • Fenomenologi : mencari makna • Grounded research : pengalaman proses • Etnografi : melihat budaya. perilaku • Etnoscience: deskripsi. karakteristik • Etologi kualitatif: deskripsi pola 4 . kebiasaan. taksonomi.

Ethnography • A culture –studying culture • It consists of a body knowledge that includes research techniques. ethnographic theory and hundreds of cultural description. • It seeks to build a systematic understanding of all human cultures from the perspective of those who have learned them • Ethnography is based on the following assumption: knowledge of all cultures is valuable 5 .

Ethnography • A strong focus on exploring the nature of particular social phenomena • A tendency to work primarily with unstructured data • Examination of a small number of people. perhaps just one in detail • Analysis of data which involves explicit interpretation of the meanings and functions of human actions-and descriptions and explanations of the events take priority 6 .

the way you should greet a friend • Each individual’s life-world is different and individual’s actions can be understood by situating them within the life-world of the actor 7 . subjective experience of their biological worlds can be termed their “life-world” • The life world is the individual’s world of their everyday life – clothes should be worn.Phenomenology • Study situations in the everyday world from the viewpoint of the experiencing person • In contrast to the emphasis on culture that is characteristic of ethnographers. the whole of people’s unquestioned. what the weather will be like. phenomenology emphasis the individual’s construction of a “life world” • Taken together.

Grounded theory • Is one that is inductively derived from the study of the phenomenon it represents • That is discovered. developed and provisionally verified through systematic data collection and analysis of data pertaining to that phenomenon • It makes no sense to start with received theories or variables (categories) because these are likely to inhibit or impede the development of new theoretical formulations. unless of course your purpose is to open these up and to find new meanings in them 8 .

Studi Kasus Summarized from references by: Yayi Suryo Prabandari Program Studi S2 IKM FK UGM .

Karakter Case Study • Attempts to derive general conclusions from limited number cases – Examine the marketing process in a single or a few manufacturing companies in order to come to conclusions regarding business to business marketing • Seeks to arrive at specific conclusions regarding a single case because this “case history” .

Tipe Case Study • Exploratory-single or multiple cases – A pilot study that can be used a basis for formulating more precise questions or testable hypotheses  determining the feasibility of the desired research procedure • Descriptive-single or multiple cases – Is attempt to describe  presents a complete description of a phenomenon within its context • Explanatory-single or multiple cases – Is looked upon with skeptis  present data bearing on cause-effect relationships-explaining how events happened .

kapan digunakan: • Selecting the cases to be studied. whether following a single-case or multiple case design • Specifying what is being explored when you are doing exploratory case studies • Stipulating rival theories when you are doing exploratory case studies • Generalizing the results to other cases .Theory.

Exploratory Study Issues • The need to create a framework of study • Unit of analysis • Criteria for selecting cases • Case screening • How and why do research findings get into practical use .

Descriptive case studies Issues • Multiple-case design • Categorical vs non categorical education • Unit of analysis and selection of cases .

Jenis Penelitian Kualitatif lainnya • • • • • Studi ex post facto Penelitian aksi Metode biografi Pendekatan sejarah Riset klinis 15 .

SAMPLING PADA PENELITIAN KUALITATIF 16 .

17 .Issues • Tidak ada aturan khusus “jumlah sampel” • Seeking breadth or seeking depth • The validity. meaningfulness and insight generated from qualitative inquiry have more to do with the information-richness of the cases selected and the observational/analytical capabilities of the researcher than with sample size.

Sampling strategies • Purposeful sampling – Extreme or deviant case sampling – Intensity sampling – Maximum variation sampling – Homogeneous sampling – Typical case sampling – Stratified purposeful sampling – Critical case sampling 18 .

Sampling strategies • Purposeful sampling – – – – – – – – – Snowball or chain sampling Criterion sampling Theory-based or operational construct sampling Confirming & disconfirming cases Opportunistic sampling Random purposeful sampling (small sample size) Sampling politically important cases Convenience sampling Combination or mixed purposeful sampling 19 .

ISSUES KESAHIHAN DAN METODE PENGUMPULAN DATA 20 .

Kesahihan dan Keandalan • Kredibilitas  kebenaran • Transferabilitas  penerapan • Dependabilitas  pengulangan • Konfirmabilitas  objektivitas .

dsb.) . fotografi) • Personal Experience KUANTITATIF: • Wawancara terstruktur • Observasi dengan check list • Study dokumen dengan check list • Kuesioner/angket/skala • Pengukuran dengan alat (timbangan.22 Alat pengumpul data dalam kualitatif dan kuantitatif KUALITATIF: • Wawancara mendalam • Focus Group Discussion • Observasi • Study dokumen (analisis isi) • Visual (videografi. meteran.

• Prosedur ini kemudian dikembangkan untuk hal yang lain yang berhubungan dengan kesehatan 23 .Rapid Assessment Procedure: salah satu alternatif untuk melakukan need assessment • Diadopsi dari pendekatan dan metode dalam bidang ilmu antropologi • Pendekatan ini digunakan untuk mengetahui konteks lokal dan budaya setempat agar suatu program kesehatan dapat efektif • Prosedur ini pada awalnya bertitik tolak pada kepercayaan dan persepsi yang berhubungan dengan kesehatan. penggunaan sumber kesehatan tradisional maupun biomedis.

Metode Pengumpulan Data pada RAP • • • • • • • Formal interview Informal interview Conversation Observation Participant observation Focus Group Discussion Documentation & bibliography study 24 .

Penyusunan Panduan • Menyesuaikan dengan pertanyaan penelitian • Menyusun bentuk panduan o Berupa pertanyaan rinci atau kerangka/topik pertanyaan o Tidak memasukkan terlalu banyak topik o Alur pertanyaan sealami mungkin o Mungkin berbeda untuk responden berbeda 25 .

Metode Pengumpulan Data: Diskusi Kelompok Terarah • Diskusi yang mempunyai fokus tertentu & dirancang dengan seksama • Menggali persepsi tertentu • Tidak mencari konsensus • Hasilnya adalah variasi jawaban • Peserta 6-12 orang • Suasana informal. santai dan tidak menekan 26 .

menimbulkan suasana privasi • DKT dipandu seorang fasilitator. sebaiknya dibantu oleh penulis • Informan sebaiknya tidak mengenal satu sama lain dan homogen • Proses sebaiknya terekam dan ijin dulu pada informan 27 .Metode Pengumpulan Data: Diskusi Kelompok Terarah • Waktu diskusi maksimal 2 jam • Tempat diusahakan nyaman.

termasuk basa basi • Suasana dibuat nyaman.Metode Pengumpulan Data: WAWANCARA MENDALAM • Tatap muka dengan tujuan khusus • Dipandu dengan panduan wawancara atau betul-betul bebas • Hindari kehadiran orang lain selain informan • Maksimal waktu untuk wawancara adalah 2 jam. ada privasi • Sebaiknya direkam setelah ijin terlebih dulu 28 .

Metode Pengumpulan Data: WAWANCARA MENDALAM • Pewawancara harus netral • Ringkasan wawancara dibuat segera • Bias dapat terjadi pada pewawancara (menjurus.tendensius. kegagalan menggali) ataupun panduannya 29 .

Metode Pengumpulan Data: OBSERVASI • Observasi • Observasi partisipatif • Observasi un-obstrusif 30 .

lepas dari prasangka 31 . cctv) • Perhatikan batasan yang akan diamati • Lamanya tidak ada batasan • Pengamat harus netral. one way mirror.Metode Pengumpulan Data: OBSERVASI • Dilakukan pada waktu tertentu vs partisipatif • Langsung mengamati vs dibantu alat (video.

Metode Pengumpulan Data: YANG LAINNYA • Interpretasi dokumen dan material • Metode visual • Pengalaman personal 32 .

Terima Kasih Atas Perhatian Anda 33 .