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OMF 007001 Frequency Planning ISSUE1.

Wireless Training Department

content

Frequency planning

Tight frequency reuse


Frequency hopping

Content of Frequency planning

Frequency

resource of GSM system


for interference and carrier-to-

Requirement

interference ratio
Signal

quality grade coding


of frequency reuse

Concept 4*3

frequency reuse

Frequency Resource of GSM System

GSM 900 :

890

915

935

960

Duplex distance : 45 MHz

GSM 1800 :

1710

1785

1805

1880

Duplex distance : 95 MHz

Frequency Band Configuration

GSM900:

BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 (n) =890.2+ (n-1)*0.2 MHz


BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 (n) =f1 (n) +45 MHz

GSM1800:

BTS receiver (uplink ): f1 (n) =1710.2 + (n-512) * 0.2 MHz BTS transmitter (downlink ): f2 (n) =f1 (n) +95 MHz

Requirement for Interference and Carrierto-Interference Ratio


All useful signals All useless signals

C/I =
Useful signal

carrier interference

Noise from environment

Other signals

GSM standard: C / I >= 9 dB In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB

Requirement for Interference and CarrierTo-Interference Ratio


All useful signals All useless signals

C/I =
Useful signal

carrier interference

Noise from environment

Other signals

GSM standard: C / I >= 9 dB In practical projects: C / I >= 12dB

Effect of Interference

Decrease of signal quality

Bit error
Recoverable: channel coding, error correction Irrecoverable: phase distortion

System interference model


Unbalanced: uplink interference downlink interference Asymmetrical: the interference is different at the MS and BTS ends

Signal Quality

Receiving quality (RXQUAL parameter)

Level of receiving quality (0 ... 7)

Bit error rate before decoding and error correction


RXQUAL class 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Mean BER (%) 0.14 0.28 0.57 1.13 2.26 4.53 9.05 18.1 BER range from... to < 0.2% 0.2 ... 0.4 % 0.4 ... 0.8 % 0.8 ... 1.6 % 1.6 ... 3.2 % 3.2 ... 6.4 % 6.4 ... 12.8 % > 12.8 %

Good Fairly good Acceptable Intolerable

Concept of Frequency Reuse

Macro-cell system

{fi,fj..fk}

d Micro-cell system
{fi,fj..fk}
.. {fi,fj..fk} .. {fi,fj..fk}

The Reason of Frequency Reuse

Frequency resource is limited. If there is 8MHz frequency

resource, 8 MHz = 40 channels * 8 timeslots = 320


==> max. 320 users can access the network at the same time.

Reuse Density

Reuse density is the number of cells in a basic reuse cluster.


4*312
n*mn*m n: BTS number in a basic reuse cluster m: Frequency group number in a BTS

Tighter reuse
0 10

Looser reuse
20

Higher frequency reuse


efficiency, but interference is serious. More technique Is needed.

Little interference, but frequency

reuse efficiency is low.

Problem of Frequency Reuse

[fn]
R

[fn] D

[fn]

Reuse of a frequency causes the co-channel interference

Interference (C/I) Estimation

C q 1 I 6

1 / 2

q = D / R = ( 3 k )

Frequency Reuse Patterns

Purpose: to minimize the interference in the whole network with

the final frequency allocation plan

Theoretically
Regular hexagon cell Regular network distribution

Cell cluster
Multiplexing distance D = R *sqrt(3*K)
R D

This old-fashioned frequency distribution mode is not recommended

4*3 Frequency Reuse

C1 C2 A1 A2 C3 D1 C1 C2 D2 A3 B1 A1 A2 B2 D3 C3 D1 D2 B3 A3 B1 C1 C2 C1 C2 B2 D3 A1 A2 A1 A2 B3 C1 C3 D1 C3 D1 C2 A3 D2 A3 D2 A1 A2 B1 B2 B1 B2 C3 D1 D3 C1 D3 D2 B3 C2 B3 A3 B1 A1 B2 D3 A2 C3 D1 D2 B3 A3 B1 B2 D3 B3

Illustration of Frequency Allocation of 4*3 Frequency Reuse

A1 B1 C1 D1 A2 B2 C2 D2 A3 B3 C3 D3 34 34 35 36 37 38 39

40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

Outline

Frequency planning

Tight frequency reuse


Frequency hopping

Tight Frequency Reuse Technology

Multi-layer reuse pattern

Underlaid and overlaid cell


1*3 1*1

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern

BCCH: n1
TCH1: n2 TCH2: n3 TCHm-1: nm n1 n2n3 n4 ...... nm

And n1+n2+...+nm=n

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Frequency Allocation

Suppose that the available frequency carrier is 10MHZ,

channel number is 46 94, the Multi-layer reuse pattern


should be:
RC type BCCH TCH1 TCH2 TCH3 TCH4 TCH5 Allocated frequencies 46~57 58~66 67~74 75~82 83~88 89~94 Number of available frequencies 12 9 8 8 6 6

Multi-layer Reuse Pattern Frequency Allocation

{f1,f2,f3,f4,f5...f40}

{f1,f3,f5...f23}

{f2,f4..f22,f24...f40}

BCCH

TCH1

TCH2

TCH3

TCH4

Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern


Capacity increase when reuse density is multiplied:
Supposing there are 300 cells Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency)

Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12


TRX ==> network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000

Multiple reuse:
BCCH layer: re-use =14, (14 frq.) Normal TCH layer: re-use =10, (20 frq.) Aggressive TCH layer:re-use = 6, (6 frq.) ==> Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

BWi cap. N re usei

Advantages of Multi-layer Reuse Pattern


Capacity increases when reuse density is multiplied:
Supposing there are 300 cells Bandwidth: 8 MHz (40 frequency)

Normal 4*3 reuse: reuse density=12


TRX ==> network capacity = 40/12 * 300 = 1000

Multiple reuse:
BCCH layer: re-use =14, (14 frq.) Normal TCH layer: re-use =10, (20 frq.) Aggressive TCH layer:re-use = 6, (6 frq.) ==> Network capacity = (1 +2 +1)* 300 = 1200 TRX

BWi cap. N re usei

Underlaid/Overlaid Frequency Allocation

Overlaid-cell Underlaid-cell

The inner circle covers a smaller area, and the frequency can be reused more tightly.

Overlaid/Underlaid Frequency Configuration

Super fn

Super fn Regular fm

Super fn Regular fm

Regular fm

BCCH 15f

Regular 24f

Super 12f

BCCH

Reuse density: 15

R TCH TRX reuse density: 12

S TCH

TRX reuse density: 6

1*3 and 1*1 Reuse Patterns

BCCH14+TCH36
1BCCH+3TCH 1BCCH+12TCH

1BCCH+3TCH

1BCCH+3TCH

1BCCH+12TCH

1BCCH+12TCH

4*3

1*3

Illustration of 1*3 TCH Frequency Allocation

TRX1 TRX2 ... TRX7


TRX1 TRX2 ... TRX7

TRX8 TRX9... TRX14 TRX8 TRX9... TRX14 TRX15 TRX16...TRX21

TRX15 TRX16...TRX21

The red items are BCCH RCs

Frequency Planning Principle


There should be no co-channel frequency carriers in one BTS. The frequency separation between BCCH and TCH in the same cell should be not less than 400K.

When frequency hopping is not used, the separation of TCH in the same cell should be not less than 400K.

In non-1*3 reuse mode, co-channel should be avoided between the


immediately neighbor BTS.

Neighbor BTS should not have co-channels facing each other directly. Normally, with 1*3 reuse, the number of the hopping frequencies should be not less than twice of the number of frequency hopping TRX in the same cell.

Pay close attention to co-channel reuse, avoiding the situation that

the same BCCH has the same BSIC in adjacent area.

Example of Frequency Planning


An example network in a specific place, BTS are densely located. The topography is plain. The maximum BTS configuration is S3/3/2.

Initial planning:

Example of Frequency Planning


Final frequency planning:

Example of 1*3 Frequency Reuse

Suppose 900 band: 96124

BTS configuration: S3/3/3


BCCH layer: 96109 reuse pattern: 4*3 TCH layer: 110124 reuse pattern: 1*3

TCH Consecutive Allocation Scheme

Group 1 (MA1): 110 111 112

113

114

Cell1

Group 2 (MA2): 115 116 117


Group 3 (MA3): 120 121 122

118
123

119
124

Cell2
Cell3

TCH Interval Allocation Scheme

Group 1 (MA1): 110

113

116

119

122

Cell1

Group 2 (MA2): 111


Group 3 (MA3): 112

114
115

117
118

120
121

123
124

Cell2
Cell3

Comparison Between Multi-layer reuse and 1*3

For Multi-layer reuse pattern, either Base band hopping or RF hopping can be used. But for 1x3 reuse, only RF hopping can be used.

Multi-layer reuse pattern is a gradual process for TCH frequency planning. In other words, the reuse is rather loose in TCH1 layer and it is quite close in the last TCH layer (such as TCH5). The reason for this pattern is that base band hopping is used in the Multi-layer reuse pattern. When there are rather few frequency carriers, the hopping gain is small. Therefore, more frequency carriers should be allocated for the layer with small TCH and then the reuse coefficient is relatively large. When RF hopping is used in the Multi-layer reuse pattern and there are a large number of frequency carriers, the hopping gain is high and the reuse coefficient can be very small. In addition, the Multi-layer reuse pattern is of a free pattern. It is different from base band hopping, in which the reuse must be loose in the first TCH layer and more close in inner layers.

Comparison Between Example of Frequency Planning and 1*3

The frequency planning for the 1x3 mode is simple and it is easy to plan the frequency for new added BTS.

1x3 mode requires a rather regular BTS location distribution. For the cells with fixed number of TRX, when the traffic is heavy, the 1x3 provides higher service quality than that of Multi-layer reuse pattern.

TRX can be easily added to the 1x3 network, but TRX number of hopping should not exceed the product of the allocated hopping frequency number and the max RF load ratio.

BCCH of Multi-layer reuse pattern can take part in the frequency hopping, while BCCH in 1x3 mode can not.

Overview

Frequency planning

Tight frequency reuse


Frequency hopping

Content of Frequency Hopping

Class

of hopping
of hopping

Advantages Parameter

of hopping

Collocation

of hopping data

Frequency Hopping

Class of Hopping

Hopping can be implemented in two ways


Base-band hopping RF hopping

Class according to the min hopping time unit


Timeslot hopping Frame hopping

Base Band Hopping Principle

RF Hopping Principle

Class of Hopping

Frame hopping

Frequency changes every TDMA frame. The different channel


of one TRX uses the same MAIO.

Timeslot hopping

Frequency changes every timeslot. The different channel of one TRX uses the different MAIO.

Advantages of Hopping

Get an agreeable radio environment.

Provide a similar communication quality for every user.

Tighter reuse patterns are possible to be used


capacity.

for larger

Frequency Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen the rapid fading (Rayleigh fading)

Interference Diversity of Hopping

Smoothen and average the interference

Description Hopping Parameters

At the Um interface, the ARFCN on a specific burst is an

element in MA set. MAI is used for indication, referring to a


specific element in the MA set.

When 0< MAI<n-1 MAI is the function of TDMA FN, HSN and MAIO.

Description Hopping Parameters

At

the air interface, the RC number on a specific burst is an

element in MA set. MAI is used for indication, referring to a


specific element in the MA set.
When

0< MAI<n-1

MAI is the function of TDMA FN, HSN and MAIO.

Description of Hopping Parameters

HSNhopping sequence number063.

HSN=0cycle hopping.
HSN0 random hopping. Every sequence corresponds a pseudo random sequence. number

Hopping Parameters

Hopping mode: the mode used by the BTS system, including

three options: not hopping, base band hopping and RF


hopping.

Location: in Cell Configuration Table

CA (Cell Allocation Table): refer to all available frequency carriers in the cell. The allocation should be consecutive starting from the effective frequency carrier 0. There should be no empty data item. The frequency carrier configuration should be in an ascending order.

Location: in Cell Allocation Table.

Hopping Parameters

MA (Mobile Allocation Set): the set of available RF bands

when hopping, containing at most 16 frequency carriers. The


frequency being used must be those of the corresponding cell number in Cell Allocation Table, and no frequency of BCCH channel should be in the set.

Location: in Carrier Configuration Table.

HSN (Hopping Serial Number): used to define the actual rule for hopping. 0 stands for sequence hopping and other values for pseudo random sequence hopping.

Location: in Frequency Hopping Table .

Hopping Parameters

MAIO (Mobile Allocation Index Offset): used to define the initial frequency of the hopping. The MAIO of all channels of one hopping TRX must be identical. The MAIO of channels of different hopping TRX in the same cell must be different.

Location: in frequency hopping table .

TSC (Training Sequence Code): used for delay equalization at the receiver end. TSC must be the same as the BTS color code. When an MS or BTS receives signals, delay equalization is started with the

specified TSC. But for the co-channel signals with different TSC,
delay equalization is impossible, so that demodulation can not be received. In this way, erroneous receiving is prevented effectively and then co-channel interference is prevented.

Location: in Radio Channel Configuration Table.

Hopping Data Configuration Rules

TSC The same RC in the cell Different RC in the cell Co-channel cell

CA

MA

HSN

MAIO #

Note: means absolutely same; means absolutely different; # means uncertain.

Description of Cell Allocation Table


Field name Module ID Cell ID Cell name Meaning Module ID is the number of the module containing the cell Cell ID is the index value of the cell It is just a prompt Value range 0~255 0~65535 30 bit M900: 1~124; M1800: 512~885 Configure as necessar y Suggesti on

ARFCN 0~63 It is used to configure the ab solute RC number in the cell using frequency bands; each cell can be configured with at most 64 frequency bands. The number of frequency bands to be used in practice is usually determined in network planning. When there are less than 64 frequency bands, the invalid field need no configuration. For example, if only 6 bands are used, effective bands 0~5 should be configured and the subsequent effective bands 6~63 should not be configured.

Description of RC Configuration Table


Field Name Module ID Cell ID HW-IUO property equipment group ID Meaning Module ID is the number of the module containing the cell Cell ID is the index value of the cell Value range Suggestion 0~255 0~65535

ARFCN

Indicating whether TRX should be configured as OverLaid or UnderLaid subcell. The number of the equipment group at the 0~2 site. One site supports at most 3 equipment groups; It is usually configured as 0 at present. Configure the frequency that the RC unit The subset occupies. Configure one frequency when there of the is no hopping. If hopping is necessary, effective RC configure 3~64 bands. These effective RCs in Cell must be the subset of the effective RCs in the Allocation cell distribution table. Table Static transmitting power level of the RC. 0 corresponds to the static power 46dBm, i.e. 40W. The static power is lowered by 2dB with the level goes up by 1. 0~13

Static TRX Power classl

Subject to actual condition and the equipment capacity

Description of Hopping Data Table


Field name FH index number Meaning Value range Suggest ion

HSN

TSC

FH ARFCN

The index number of all sorts of hopping 0~255 status, providing index value for Radio Channel Configuration Table . The numbers are in a sequence starting from 0. HSN, indicating the sequence rule of the 0~63 hopping. Usually, there is only one HSN in the same cell and the HSN in the co-channel cell must be different. The above-mentioned rules must be observed. Decide the parameters of the self-adaptive 0~7 equalization filter in the receiving processing filter. It is the same as the corresponding base color code (BCC). Number of frequency in the hopping serial. Corresponding Configu According to hopping algorithm, at least 3 participant hopping re as frequencies are required for hopping gain. If frequency in Cell necessa this field is left blank, it is invalid. ry Configuration Data Table

Description of Radio Channel Configuration Table


Domain name TRX ID Channel ID Ch type Meaning The number of TRX unit in an BS Number of physical timeslot in TRX Logic channel type of timeslots, including TCH Full Rate, TCH Half Rate 01, TCH Half Rate 0, SDCCH8 , Master BCCH, Composite BCCH, BCH, BCCH + CBCH, SDCCH + CBCH, etc. It is used to index to corresponding record in Hopping Data Table. MAIO, used to decide initial frequency offset of the hopping. One timeslot is divided into 2 sub -channel 0, 1at half rate. It is all 0 at full rate. Value range 0~24 0~7 9 channel groupings Suggesti on

FH index number MAIO

0~255 Less than the number of hopping frequency 0~1 0~65535

Sub-ch ID

circ uit number Number of trunk circuit at Abis interface occupied by the corresponding physical timeslot.