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1. SECURITY AND SHELTER should be a safe and comfortable place for instruction and learning should not allow for any form of intrusion and interference.

3. SYMBOLIC IDENTIFICATION The walls of the classroom should be a source of information for the pupils at all times. EXAMPLE : Posters and charts , bulletin board

4. PLEASURE the environment should have a pleasant and relaxing atmosphere. EXAMLE : wall colour, furniture.



to positively develop pupils and equip them with the knowledge and skills to be able to adjust themselves to society and the environment.

Is the academic process of carrying out activities that induce learning among pupils. EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES - Can motivate pupils to learn in ways that make a sustained. Substantial and positive influence on how they think, act, and feel. - Involve interactions; between the teachers and pupils, between pupils and pupils.

Classroom Instruction and Management Practises

1. Effective classroom instructions

Most effective instructions strategies: - selecting appropriate teaching materials and devise suitable activities to facilitate pupils learning; - making effective use of classroom management techniques to ensure a conducive environment for learning with minimal disruptive behaviours

thus effective classroom management must have these:

a good arrangement of instructional strategies in any way you wish to do; being skillful at identifying and articulating the proper sequence and pacing of your content; being highly skilled in classroom management techniques.

2. Instructional Strategies
Pupils need to engage attentively in the class, so teachers must: Consider pupils attention span Teacher-centred activities (presentation/teacher modeling) Pupil-centred activities (practice sheets/ independent reading) Small group activities

Teachers need to have a time limit for activities:

Not too long and not too short presentation independent activities Too little time for group task and hands-on activities hinder pupils learning Task takes too long to complete bored Too easy task finish the task early and giving a chance to mischief

Features of effective instructions

Appropriate level of instructional material or task: - provide pupils with planned, sequential instruction, materials and tasks at their appropriate instructional level

- when pupils are provided with materials of appropriate levels of instructional difficulty, their on-task behaviour, task completion and comprehension increases. - instruction has to be adjusted appropriately (give more opportunities for them to experience it by themselves.)

Feedback - provides feedback for both the pupils and the teachers in a variety of ways through discussion, in writing and non-verbally. - feedback serves to motivate both pupils and teachers, promoting an active learning situation.

Teachers personal qualities: - mastery of the subject - approachable, accessible, a sense of humour and having respect for the pupils - enthusiastically and professionally engage pupils in lessons to help them learn and retain what is taught