2013/2014
COURSE CONTENT
Building a Fluid Mechanics Vocabulary
Fluid Properties
Fluid Statics
Pressure Measurement
Fluid Forces
Newtonian and nonNewtonian fluids
Fluids in Motion
Conservation of Mass: Continuity Equation
Conservation of Energy, Part I: Bernoullis Equation
Conservation of Momentum: Momentum Equation
Conservation of Energy, Part II: Energy Equation
Application of the Basic Principles
Hydraulic Modeling
Flow of fluids in circular and noncircular Pipes
Flow of fluids in open channels
Pumps and pump characteristics
Energy Losses
INTRODUCTION
Fluid mechanics is the study of the behavior of
fluids , either at rest (fluid statics) or in motion (fluid
dynamics)
Fluid is defined as a substance that deforms
continuously when acted on by a shearing stress of
any magnitude.
Fluids can be either liquids or
gases
Liquids e.g. Water, gasoline, and
alcohol
Gases e.g. Air, water vapour,
oxygen, nitrogen, methane etc
LIQUID VS GAS
A liquid takes the shape of the
container it is in and forms a
free surface in the presence of
gravity
A gas expands until it
encounters the walls of the
container and fills the entire
available space. Gases cannot
form a free surface
Gas and vapor are often used
as synonymous words
5
HISTORY
Faces of Fluid Mechanics
Archimedes
(C. 287212 BC)
Newton
(16421727)
Leibniz
(16461716)
Euler
(17071783)
Navier
(17851836)
Stokes
(18191903)
Reynolds
(18421912)
Prandtl
(18751953)
Bernoulli
(16671748)
Taylor
(18861975)
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Any physical quantity can
be characterized by
dimensions.
The magnitudes assigned
to dimensions are called
units.
Primary dimensions (or
fundamental dimensions)
include: mass M, length L,
time T, and temperature ,
etc.
By General Conference of Weights and
Measures
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
For a wide variety of problems involving fluid
mechanics, only the three basic dimensions, L, T,
and M are required. Alternatively, L, T, and F could
be used, where F is the basic dimensions of force
Quantity Name of unit SI  Unit symbol
Length (L) meter m
Mass (m) kilogram kg or (N.s
2
/m)
Time (T) second s
Temperature () Kelvin K
Force (F) Newton N or (kg.m/s
2
)
Note: equivalent unit of F = ma = kg.m/s
2
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Secondary dimensions (derived dimensions) can be expressed in
terms of primary dimensions and include: area (A), pressure (P),
velocity V, energy E, and volume V, etc...
e.g. Area= length length =L
2
= m
2
Velocity = Distance/time = L/T = m/s
Unit systems include;
English system or U.S. Customary system and
Metric SI (International System)
All theoretically derived equations describing physical phenomena
are dimensionally homogeneous
Equation:
Dimension:
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Homogeneity of an equation;
general homogeneous equations : valid in any system of
units
restricted homogeneous equations: valid only to a
particular system of units
E.g. an equation for the distance, d, traveled by a freely falling
body can be expressed as;
, OR ...........????
Show the dimensions of the above equations!!
What is your observation?
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Based on the notational scheme introduced in 1967,
The degree symbol was officially dropped from the absolute
temperature unit,
All unit names were to be written without capitalization even if they
were derived from proper names (Table 11).
However, the abbreviation of a unit was to be capitalized if the unit was
derived from a proper name. For example, the SI unit of force, which is
named after Sir Isaac Newton (16471723), is newton (not Newton),
and it is abbreviated as N.
Also, the full name of a unit may be pluralized, but its abbreviation
cannot. For example, the length of an object can be 5 m or 5 meters,
not 5 ms or 5 meter.
Finally, no period is to be used in unit abbreviations unless they appear
at the end of a sentence. For example, the proper abbreviation of
meter is m (not m.).
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Unit systems
SI Units
In SI, the units of mass, length, and time are the kilogram (kg),
meter (m), and second (s), respectively.
British Gravitational (BG) System
The unit of length is the foot (ft), the time unit is the second (s), the
force unit is the pound (lb)
The unit of mass is slug and it is derived from from Newtons second
law
F = ma
m=F/a = lb/(ft/s2) = lb.s
2
/ft = slug
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
English Engineering (EE) Units
In English or U.S customary system, the units of mass,
length, and time are the poundmass (lbm), foot (ft), and
second (s), respectively
The unit of force is pound (lb or lbf)
Force and mass are defined independently
Special care is required while using these parameters
in conjunction with Newtons second law
Is 1lbm= 1 slug ????
1lbm = 0.45359 kg
1ft = 0.3048 m
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Force Units and relation between lbm and slug
SI :
EE:
BG :
We call a mass of 32.174 lbm 1 slug
For the EE system, a 1lb force is defined as that force which gives
a 1lbm a standard acceleration of gravity which is taken as
32.2ft/s
2
A dimensionally homogeneous Newtons second law is expressed
as
where, g
c
is propotionality constrant
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Pressure is defined as the amount of force exerted on a unit area of
a substance
Pa
m
N
area
force
P = = =
2
Pressure is compressive normal force applied by the fluid to the
surface
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Consider a force, , acting on a 2D region of area
A sitting on xy plane
Cartesian components:
F
x
y
z
F F i F j F k
x y z
= + + (
) (
) (
)
A
CARTESIAN COMPONENTS
i
F
z
F
x
k
 Unit vector in xdirection
 Unit vector in ydirection
 Unit vector in zdirection
 Magnitude of in xdirection (tangent to surface)
F
F
y
 Magnitude of in ydirection (tangent to surface)
 Magnitude of in zdirection (normal to surface)
t =
F
A
shear stress
x
( )
 For simplicity, let
F
y
= 0
Pressure and Shear stress
p
F
A
normal stress pressure
z
= ( ( ))
Shear stress and pressure at a point
t =

\

.

F
A
x
A lim 0
p
F
A
z
A
=

\

.

lim 0
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Pascals laws:
Pressure acts uniformly in all directions on
a small volume (point) of a fluid
In a fluid confined by solid boundaries,
pressure acts perpendicular to the
boundary it is a normal force.
More on pressure...
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Furnace duct Pipe or tube
Heat exchanger
Dam
Pressure is a Normal Force
(acts perpendicular to surfaces)
It is also called a Surface Force
Direction of fluid pressure on boundaries
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Unit Definition or
Relationship
1 pascal (Pa) 1 kg m
1
s
2
1 bar 1 x 10
5
Pa
1 atmosphere (atm) 101,325 Pa
1 torr 1 / 760 atm
760 mm Hg 1 atm
14.696 pounds per
sq. in. (psi)
1 atm
Units for Pressure
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Weight, W is a force. It is the gravitational force applied to a body,
and its magnitude is determined from Newtons second law ,
where m is the mass of the body, and g is the local gravitational
acceleration (g is 9.807 m/s2 or 32.174 ft/s2
The weight of a unit volume of a substance is called the specific
weight, and is determined from;
or where is density, V is volume
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Work, which is a form of energy, can simply be defined as
force times distance; therefore, it has the unit newtonmeter
(N . m), which is called a joule (J). That is,
A more common unit for energy in SI is the kilojoule (1 kJ =
10
3
J). In the English system, the energy unit is the Btu
(British thermal unit), which is defined as the energy required
to raise the temperature of 1 lbm of water at 68F by 1F.
In the metric system, the amount of energy needed to raise
the temperature of 1 g of water at 14.5C by 1C is defined
as 1 calorie (cal), and 1 cal = 4.1868 J. The magnitudes of
the kilojoule and Btu are almost identical (1 Btu = 1.0551 kJ).
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Dimensional homogeneity is a valuable tool in checking for errors. Make
sure every term in an equation has the same units.
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
Unity conversion ratios are helpful in converting units. Use them.
All nonprimary units (secondary units) can be formed by
combinations of primary units. Force units, for example, can be
expressed as
DIMENSIONS AND UNITS
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
Gases are light and compressible,
Liquids are heavy (by comparison) and relatively incompressible
Syrup flows slowly from a container than water
To quantify these differences certain fluid properties are used
Fluid properties include;
Mass (m) already discussed!
Pressure Already discussed!
Density ()
specific weight (w)
specific gravity (sg)
Bulk modulus of elastisity (E)
viscosity i.e. Dynamic or kinematic viscosity
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
Density, (rho) of a fluid is defined as its mass (m) per unit
volume (V)
The value of can vary widely between different fluids
For liquids, variations in pressure and temperature generally
have only a small effect on the value of
Unlike liquids, the density of a gas is strongly influenced by
both pressure and temperature
The maximum density ( = 1000kg/m
3
) of water is reached at
4
0
C
Specific volume, V
s
of fluid is its volume per unit mass
= m/V (kg/m
3
)
V
s
= V/m =1/ (m
3
/kg)
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
Effect of temperature on the value of of water
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
Specific weight of a fluid, , (gamma), is defined as its weight per
unit volume
The specific weight is related to density through the equation;
Specific gravity of a fluid, SG, is defined as the ratio of the density
of the fluid to the density of water at some specified temperature
Usually the specified temperature is taken as 4
0
C (39.2
0
F)and at this
temperature the density of water 1000kg/m
3
or 1.94slug/ft
3
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
Density of Ideal Gases
Gases are highly compressible in comparison to liquid.
Changes in gas density directly related to changes in pressure
and temperature through the equation of ideal or perfect gas
law;
The gas constant, R, depends on the particular gas and is
related to the molecular weight of the gas by equation;
R = R
u
/M
R
u
, is universal gas constant
(8.314kJ/kmol K)
M, molecular weight
Where P, is absolute pressure (N/m2),
T, is are absolute temperature (K)
R, is gas constant
P = RT
PROPERTIES OF FLUID
Example 1:
A reservoir of oil has a mass of 825kg and a volume of
0.917m
3
calculate;
Weight of the reservoir
The density, specific weight and specific gravity of the
oil
Example 2:
Glycerine at 20
0
C has a specific gravity of 1.263. compute its
density and specific weight.
Example 3
A gas weighs 20N/m3 at 30
0
C and at an absolute pressure of
350kN/m2. Determine the gas constant and density of the
gas.
BULK MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The bulk modulus of elasticity or compressibility refer to
the change in volume (V) of a substance that is
subjected to a change in pressure on it.
Liquids are heavy and very slightly compressible
For liquids, very large change in pressure is required to
produce small change a in volume.
Gases light and compressible bulk modulus is not
usually applied to gases.
For gases, to determine the change in volume of a gas
with a change in pressure, the principles of
thermodynamics must be applied
VISCOSITY ( )
Different fluids deform at different rates when the same
shear stress (force/area) is applied.
Viscosity, is a fluid property that offers resistance to the
shear force or relative motion of fluid
It can be thought as the internal stickiness of a fluid
Representative of internal friction in fluids
Internal friction forces in flowing fluids result from cohesion
and momentum interchange between molecules.
EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY..
In liquids;
viscosity decreases with increasing temperature
When temperature increases the distance between
molecules increases and the cohesive force
decreases.
In gases;
The contribution to viscosity is more due to
momentum transfer
As temperature increases, more molecules cross over with
higher momentum differences and setting up strong internal
shear
Thus, viscosity increases with increasing temperature
Dynamic (absolute)
viscosity of some common
fluids as a function of
temperature
MORE ON VISCOSITY...
Viscosity is important, for example,
In determining the amount of fluids that can be
transported in a pipeline during a specific period
of time
determining energy losses associated with
transport of fluids in ducts, channels and pipes
NO SLIP CONDITION
Because of viscosity, at boundaries (walls) particles
of fluid adhere to the walls, and so the fluid velocity
is zero relative to the wall
Viscosity and associated shear stress may be
explained via the following: flow between noslip
parallel plates.
Flow between noslip parallel plates
each plate has area A
Moving plate
Fixed plate
F U ,
Y
x
z
y
F Fi =
U Ui =
Force induces velocity on top plate. At top plate flow velocity is
F
U
U
At bottom plate velocity is
0
The velocity induced by moving top plate can be sketched as follows:
y
u y ( )
Y
U
u y
U
Y
y ( ) =

\

.

The velocity induced by top plate is expressed as:
u y ( ) = = 0 0
u y Y U ( ) = =
Slope: Take derivertive of the equation gives;
The expression is valid
for most common fluids
such as water, gasoline
and air
Where: is rate of shearing strain &
du/dy velocity gradient = slope
slope
For a large class of fluids, empirically, F
AU
Y
More specifically, F
AU
Y
= ; is coefficient of vis ity cos
Shear stress induced by F is t = =
F
A
U
Y
From previous slide, note that
du
dy
U
Y
=
Thus, shear stress is t =
du
dy
In general we may use this expression to find shear stress at a point
inside a moving fluid. Note that if fluid is at rest this stress is zero because
du
dy
= 0
t =
F
A
shear stress
x
( ) Recall: definition of Shear stress
Alternatively: The shearing stress () is directly propotional to
the rate of deformation/shearing strain()/velocity gradient
==>
The expression is know as Newtons law of viscosity
Newtons law of viscosity states that the shear force to be
applied for a deformation rate of (du/dy) over an area A is
given by,
t =
du
dy
=
 kinematic
viscosity
y
NEWTONS EQUATION OF VISCOSITY
NEWTONIAN AND NONNEWTONIAN FLUIDS
Fluids for which the shearing stress is linearly related
to the rate of shearing strain are designated as
Newtonian fluids
Newtonian fluids obey eqn:
Fluids for which the shearing stress is not linearly
related to the rate of shearing strain are designated
as nonNewtonian fluids
NonNewtonian fluids do not obey the above
equation
Linear variation of shearing stress with rate of shearing strain
for common fluids
Variation of shearing stress with rate of shearing strain for
several types of fluids, including common nonNewtonian fluids
SELF STUDY.....
Surface tension...
END