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# Lecture 21 - Reinforced Columns

## November 15, 2001 CVEN 444

Lecture Goals
Short column design Long columns design Serviceability

## Design of Short Columns

Design a short square tied column to carry a design load of Pu of 640 kips and a design moment of 330 kip-ft. Place the reinforcing uniformly in the four faces. Design the ties. Use a 1.5 in. cover with an unsupported length = 11 ft. and fc = 4000 psi and fy = 60 ksi.

Problem Steps
Determine eccentricity. Estimate column size required base on axial load. Determine e/h and required fPn/Ag Determine which chart. Select steel Design ties by ACI code Design sketch

Design Summary

## Elastic Flexural Analysis for Serviceability

Chapter 9

Introduction
Recall: Ultimate Limit States Serviceability Limit States Lead to collapse Disrupt use of Structures but do not cause collapse

Introduction
Types of Serviceability Limit States
- Excessive crack width - Excessive deflection - Undesirable vibrations - Fatigue (ULS)

## Crack Width Control

Cracks are caused by tensile stresses due to loads moments, shears, etc..

## Crack Width Control

Bar crack development.

## Crack Width Control

Temperature crack development

## Crack Width Control

Reasons for crack width control?
Appearance Leakage Corrosion
(smooth surface > 0.01 to 0.013 = public concern) (Liquid-retaining structures) (cracks can speed up occurrence of corrosion)

## Crack Width Control

Corrosion more apt to occur if (steel oxidizes
rust )

Chlorides ( other corrosive substances) present Relative Humidity > 60 % High Ambient Temperatures (accelerates chemical reactions) Wetting and drying cycles Stray electrical currents occur in the bars.

## Limits on Crack Width

ACI Codes Basis max.. crack width = 0.016 in. 0.013 in. for interior exposure for exterior exposure

## Limits on Crack Width

Gergely-Lutz Equation

w = 0.076bfs 3 dc A
w = Crack width in units of 0.001 in b = Distance from NA to bottom (tension) fiber, divided by distance to reinforcement. fs = Service load stress in reinforcement dc = Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of reinforcement located closest to it, (in.) A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding tension bars (w/ same centroid) divided by # bars. (for 1 layer of bars A = (2dc b)/n

## Limits on Crack Width

ACI Code Eqn 10-5 ( limits magnitude of z term )

z = f s 3 dc A

## Note: w = 0.076b z (b=1.2)

Interior exposure: critical crack width =0.016 in. (w =16 ) z=175k/in Exterior exposure: critical crack width = 0.013 in. (w =13 ) z=145k/in

## Limits on Crack Width

Thin one-way slabs: Use b=1.35

## z = 155 k/in (Interior Exposure) z = 130 k/in (Exterior Exposure)

fs = service load stress may be taken as fy 1.55 - average load factor f s = 0.60 f y f - strength reduction factor 1.55 for flexure 0.90

Example
Given: bw= 14 in. Gr 60 steel 4 #8 with 2 #6 in the second layer with a #4 stirrup.