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Lecture 21 - Reinforced Columns

November 15, 2001 CVEN 444

Lecture Goals
Short column design Long columns design Serviceability

Design of Short Columns


Design a short square tied column to carry a design load of Pu of 640 kips and a design moment of 330 kip-ft. Place the reinforcing uniformly in the four faces. Design the ties. Use a 1.5 in. cover with an unsupported length = 11 ft. and fc = 4000 psi and fy = 60 ksi.

Problem Steps
Determine eccentricity. Estimate column size required base on axial load. Determine e/h and required fPn/Ag Determine which chart. Select steel Design ties by ACI code Design sketch

Design Summary

Elastic Flexural Analysis for Serviceability


Chapter 9

Introduction
Recall: Ultimate Limit States Serviceability Limit States Lead to collapse Disrupt use of Structures but do not cause collapse

Introduction
Types of Serviceability Limit States
- Excessive crack width - Excessive deflection - Undesirable vibrations - Fatigue (ULS)

Crack Width Control


Cracks are caused by tensile stresses due to loads moments, shears, etc..

Crack Width Control


Bar crack development.

Crack Width Control


Temperature crack development

Crack Width Control


Reasons for crack width control?
Appearance Leakage Corrosion
(smooth surface > 0.01 to 0.013 = public concern) (Liquid-retaining structures) (cracks can speed up occurrence of corrosion)

Crack Width Control


Corrosion more apt to occur if (steel oxidizes
rust )

Chlorides ( other corrosive substances) present Relative Humidity > 60 % High Ambient Temperatures (accelerates chemical reactions) Wetting and drying cycles Stray electrical currents occur in the bars.

Limits on Crack Width


ACI Codes Basis max.. crack width = 0.016 in. 0.013 in. for interior exposure for exterior exposure

Cracking controlled in ACI code by regulating the distribution of reinforcement in beams/slabs.

Limits on Crack Width


Gergely-Lutz Equation

w = 0.076bfs 3 dc A
w = Crack width in units of 0.001 in b = Distance from NA to bottom (tension) fiber, divided by distance to reinforcement. fs = Service load stress in reinforcement dc = Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of reinforcement located closest to it, (in.) A = effective tension area of concrete surrounding tension bars (w/ same centroid) divided by # bars. (for 1 layer of bars A = (2dc b)/n

Limits on Crack Width


ACI Code Eqn 10-5 ( limits magnitude of z term )

z = f s 3 dc A

Note: w = 0.076b z (b=1.2)

Interior exposure: critical crack width =0.016 in. (w =16 ) z=175k/in Exterior exposure: critical crack width = 0.013 in. (w =13 ) z=145k/in

Limits on Crack Width


Thin one-way slabs: Use b=1.35

z = 155 k/in (Interior Exposure) z = 130 k/in (Exterior Exposure)

fs = service load stress may be taken as fy 1.55 - average load factor f s = 0.60 f y f - strength reduction factor 1.55 for flexure 0.90

Example
Given: bw= 14 in. Gr 60 steel 4 #8 with 2 #6 in the second layer with a #4 stirrup.