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Basic Concepts of Air Conditioning

Prepared exclusively for COACH LEATHERWARE

Panel
Moderator: Bob Keingstein Boss Facilities Services 631-361-7430 bobk@bossfacilityservices.com

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COIL

COOL AIR

HEAT

SOURCE OF COOL AIR COIL

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

S.A. DUCT COOL AIR

COIL

HEAT
S.A. FAN

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

S.A. DUCT COOL AIR

S.A. TERMINAL

COIL

HEAT
S.A. FAN

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

R.A. GRILL S.A. DUCT COOL AIR


S.A. TERMINAL

COIL

WARM AIR

HEAT
S.A. FAN

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

R.A DUCT R.A. GRILL S.A. DUCT COOL AIR


S.A. TERMINAL

COIL

HEAT
S.A. FAN

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

R.A. FAN

R.A DUCT S.A. DUCT


S.A. TERMINAL

R.A. GRILL

COIL S.A. FAN

COOL AIR

HEAT

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM

R.A. FAN

R.A DUCT S.A. DUCT


S.A. TERMINAL

R.A. GRILL

R.A. DAMPER
COIL FRESH OUTDOOR AIR S.A. FAN COOL AIR

HEAT

O.A. DAMPER FILTER

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST AIR

E.A. DAMPER
R.A. FAN R.A DUCT S.A. DUCT
S.A. TERMINAL

R.A. GRILL

R.A. DAMPER
COIL FRESH OUTDOOR AIR S.A. FAN COOL AIR

HEAT

O.A. DAMPER FILTER

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Economizer

Provides cooling to space when outdoor air temperatures are below 55 degrees Switches over automatically from mechanical cooling Adjusts R.A. and F.A. dampers to maintain space temp May incorporate enthalpy control Mandatory in some states based on unit capacity

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TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST AIR

E.A. DAMPER
R.A. FAN R.A DUCT S.A. DUCT
S.A. TERMINAL

R.A. GRILL

R.A. DAMPER
COIL FRESH OUTDOOR AIR S.A. FAN COOL AIR

HEAT

O.A. DAMPER

WATER PIPING

FILTER

CHILLED WATER PUMP

WATER CHILLER Slide 12

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST AIR

E.A. DAMPER
R.A. FAN R.A DUCT S.A. DUCT
S.A. TERMINAL

R.A. GRILL

R.A. DAMPER
COIL FRESH OUTDOOR AIR S.A. FAN COOL AIR

HEAT

O.A. DAMPER

WATER PIPING

FILTER

HEAT
COOLING TOWER
CHILLED WATER PUMP WATER CHILLER

CONDENSER PUMP Slide 13

TYPICAL ALL-AIR SYSTEM


EXHAUST AIR

E.A. DAMPER
R.A. FAN R.A DUCT S.A. DUCT
S.A. TERMINAL

R.A. GRILL

R.A. DAMPER
COIL FRESH OUTDOOR AIR S.A. FAN COOL AIR

HEAT

O.A. DAMPER

WATER PIPING

FILTER

BOILER

HEAT
COOLING TOWER
CHILLED WATER PUMP WATER CHILLER

CONDENSER PUMP Slide 14

Equipment Types

ROOFTOP PACKAGE UNIT SPLIT SYSTEM CHILLED WATER AIR HANDLER VARIABLE AIR VOLUME (VAV) AIR TO AIR HEAT PUMP Life expectancy 10 to 12 yrs for rooftop and split systems Expect increase in repair costs as equipment ages Typically largest expense to operation of store, energy/repair costs Repair or Replace?

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Single Package Roof Top Unit

Most common Entire hvac system is


located on mall roof

Most common to have


roof leaks from roof curb, condensate overflow or roof punctures
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Single Package Roof Top Unit


HEAT COMP

CONDR COIL
FAN

O.A. E.A.

ELECTRIC HEATER

S.A. DUCT S.A. TERMINAL

R.A. DUCT

HEAT

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Single Package Roof Top Unit

Rooftop package unit Mounted on adaptor


curb Power exhaust and economizer installed

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Split System

HVAC system split into 2 pieces Condensing unit located on roof (houses compressor, condenser coil, condenser fan motor) Air handler located in space above ceiling (houses blower assembly, evap coil, air filters) Connected electrically and with refrigerant piping Most prone to refrigerant leaks especially if long distance between components Many times refrigerant lines are buried in construction and inaccessible
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SPLIT SYSTEM
CONDENSING UNIT REFRIGERANT LINES C O M P

HEAT
C O N D R

AIR

COIL

AIR HANDLING UNIT POSSIBLE ELECTRIC HEAT S.A. DUCT

O.A.
FAN

E.A.
R.A. DUCT

HEAT

OPTIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY HEATING SYSTEM

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SPLIT SYSTEM

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Split System

Air cooled condensing unit Compressor, condenser coil and condenser fans Connected to indoor air handler

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VAV BOX

Consists of VAV terminal


box located in the space above ceiling

Variable Air Volume

May have supplemental


blower motor for positive airflow to space

May have air filtration Has a damper inside that


opens and closes on demand from thermostat to allow more or less airflow to space
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Major System Components



Compressor Condenser coil Evaporator coil Condenser fan motor Evaporator fan motor Thermostatic expansion valve Evaporator blower assembly Economizers (Optional)

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HEAT REJECTION (HIGH TEMPERATURE)


95F
105F CONDENSER CONDITIONED SPACE

95F DB 78F DB
HEAT

85F
COMPRESSOR 55F

COOLING TOWER

95F

75F

35F COOLER
45F

HEAT GATHERING (LOW TEMPERATURE)

REFRIGERATION MACHINE (REFRIGERATION CYCLE)

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Compressor

This component is the heart of the system.. Pumps refrigerant and oil throughout
system Separates the high pressure side of the system from the low pressure side If compressor fails, no cooling is possible

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Condenser

Condenser coil is what gets rid of the heat in the system Can be water or air cooled, however most are air cooled in retail application Located outdoors (air cooled) Fins on coil are subject to corrosion in salt water environment. Special coatings can be applied. Fins are subject to damage from hail Traps dirt and requires periodic cleanings
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Evaporator Coil

Provides cold air to the space Located after the system air filters Return air is blown over the coil and chilled Removes moisture from air (condensate) Traps dirt that gets past air filters, reducing
cooling capacity (95% is bacterial) Requires periodic chemical cleaning

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Evaporator Fan Motor

Located behind condenser coil Draws ambient air across condenser coil System may have up to 4 or more motors based on system capacity Motors are direct drive with fan blades attached Requires little if any maintenance (sealed bearings)

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TXV Thermal Expansion Valve

Located at the evaporator coil Provides the correct amount of refrigerant to the evaporator coil for proper cooling Separates the high pressure side of the system from the low pressure side Failure could cause compressor failure and loss of system cooling capacity Frequently overlooked in diagnosing system problems Requires manual setting of superheat for proper operation.
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Evaporator Blower Assembly



Consists of: Blower motor Pulleys and fan belts Bearings Fan shaft Fan wheels Housings Can be located indoors or outdoors

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Control Types

CONVENTIONAL THERMOSTAT DIGITAL PROGRAMMABLE


THERMOSTAT PNEUMATIC LCD SYSTEM MALL INTERFACE

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Low Ambient Controls

Low ambient controls May be added to air cooled systems that must operate when outdoor temperatures are below 55 degrees Cycles condenser fan/s to maintain correct system pressures Used when economizer is not present Much less costly to install Much more costly to operate

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Conventional Thermostat

Completely manual operation Will maintain a single heat or cool setting System must be switched from heat to cool No energy savings Will allow system to operate all night while store is closed wasting energy Easy to tamper with Least expensive to install

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Programmable Thermostat

Provides auto changeover from heat to cool Provides up to 4 heat/cool settings per 24 hour period Can provide different weekend settings Keyboard can be locked out Set it and forget it
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Pneumatic Thermostat

Uses air provided by mall to operate

thermostat Very commonly used with VAV systems Least commonly found in malls Parts are fairly expensive

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LCD Thermostat

Used in newer stores Programmable type Can be dialed into by monitoring company
for data

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Rules Of Thumb
1HP = 1KW = 1KVA 1 Ton Cooling = 12,000 BTU Retail = 380 SQ FT/ Ton cooling 1KW = 3413 BTU 1 Ton = 400 CFM

Delta T = 18F across coil cooling

Delta T = 25F for heating

CFM = Building Volume in Cubic Feet Minute/Air Change Delta T = Difference between entering and leaving DB = T

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Servpro of Great Neck / Port Washington


For Further Information Please Contact Us: 516-767-9600 ServproOfGreatNeck.com
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