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BAB IV The Purpose of study: To master the nations of synonymy, Antonymy, polysemy and homonymy I.

Synonymy: - is the relationship between two predicates that have the same sense. Ex: Stubborn obstinate Mercury quicksilver - is a relation between predicates, and not between words. * We can distinguish between predicates by giving them subscript numbers. Ex: Hide: intransitive verb: Le`s hide from Mummy Hide: transitive verb: hide your sweeties Hide: noun : we watched the bird from a hide II. Antonymy: A traditional view of antonymy is that: it is simply `oppositeness of meaning. This view is not adequate, as words may be opposite in meaning in different ways, and some words have no real opposites Ex: hot x cold > hot is not the opposite of cold in the some way as borrow is the opposite of lend lend x borrow

Four basic types of antonymy 1. Binary antonyms: are predicates which come in pairs and between them exhaust all the relevant possibilities. (if the one predicate is applicable, then the other can not be, and vice versa) Ex: True x false if a sentence is true, it cannot be false. And vice versa. alive x dead if someone is alive, he/she cannot be dead. And vice versa. * sometimes two different binary antonyms can be combined in a set of predicates to produce a four way contrast.


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2. Converse: if a predicate describes a relationship between two things (people) and some other predicate describes the same relationship when the two things (people) are mentioned in the opposite order, then the two predicates are converses of each other. Ex: parent and child are converses, because X is the parent of Y describes the same situation as Y is the child of X Semantic system : English sex system truth system season system physical-state system four-member system Have the following characteristics: A. All the terms in a given system are mutually incompatible. B. Together, the members of a system cover all the relevant areas. for instance, a playing card cannot belong to both the hearts suit and the spades suit. And besides hearts, clubs, diamonds and spades, there are not other suits.

3. Gradable antonym: two predicates are gradable antonyms if they are at opposite ends of a continuous scale of values. Ex: hot and cold Between hot and cold is continuous scale of values: warm, cool or tepid. 4. Contradictory: A proposition is a contradictory of another proposition if it is impossible for them both be true at the same and of the same circumstance. Ex: This beetle is alive a contradictoty of this beetle is dead. .homonymy: A cases of homonymy is one of an ambiguous word, whose different senses are far apart from each and not obviously related to each other in any way. Ex: mug: - drinking vessel - gullible person . Polysemy: A cases of polysemy is one where a word has several very closely related senses. Ex: mouth: - of an animal - of a river In practice, it is impossible to draw a clear line between homonymy and polysemy. It is not always possible to find an exactly synonymous phrase for a given word.