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DRUM TRAINING PROGRAM

A U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Funded Program

BEST PRACTICES IN DISTRIBUTION LOSS REDUCTION


Program Presenter National Power Training Institute Program Presenter CORE International, Inc.
Faridabad

January 27 February 1, 2005,

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BEST PRACTICES IN DISTRIBUTION LOSS REDUCTION

III. Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

M. V. S. Birinchi CORE International, Inc.

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2

Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Losses Technical losses Commercial losses T & D losses AT & C losses

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Technical Losses
Every element in a power system a line a transformer etc consume some energy while performing their expected duty.
Cumulative energy consumed by all these elements constitutes technical losses
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Commercial Losses Occur on account of Non performing meters Under performing meters Meters not read Application of lower multiplication factors Defects in CT / PT circuitry Pilferage by manipulation Theft by Direct tapping etc.
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

T & D & Revenue Loss The total of Technical & Commercial losses are called T&D losses In addition to the above, revenue loss occurs on account of non-realisation of billed demand
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

AT & C Losses AT & C is abbreviation for Aggregate Technical & Commercial loss
Example: Units Input 100 MU Units sold 70 MU Losses 30 MU T&D loss% 30% If Revenue collections are 90% of demand Out of 70 MU of sales revenue is realised for 63 MU AT & C losses are 37%

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Historical background for high losses


Developing Countries could not invest in network expansion commensurate with rapid load growth Network expansion carried out on adhocism & haphazard basis Diversity factor of 1.5 was adopted which is now lost due to restricted supply Usage of lower size conductor, low voltage pockets, absence of reactive power control etc.
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Loss Scenario in India


Sl. No. 1 1. 2. System Segment 2 Trs. System Sub Trs. System Existing Level 3 4.5 4.0 Target Level 4 2.0 2.25 % diff 3 to 4 5 225% 178%

3. 4.
5.

Primary (HV) Distn. Secon (CV) Distn.


Total

7.0 7.5
23%

3.00 1.00
8.25

233% 750%
279%

[Tolerable level can perhaps be 4 + 4.0 + 5 + 2 = 15%]


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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Causes for Technical Losses


Lengthy Distribution (11 KV & LT) lines 11 KV & LT lines are extended for unduly long distances in Rural Areas (low load density) Inadequate Conductor sizes Initially lower size conductors were used and are not replaced when load growth has taken place.

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Standards for 11 KV lines


Length of 11 KV line corresponding to different loads _______________________________________________________________________ Size of KVA-KM for 8% Maximum of Load that conductor voltage drop at length of can be (with 0.8 PF line connected code No.) (KM) (KW) ________________________________________________________________________ 50 MM2 ACSR 10, 640 30 355 Rabbit 30 MM ACSR 7,200 20 360 Weasel 20 MM2 ACSR 5,120 15 341 Squirrel .
The figures are for a conductor temperature of 60o C. For a conductor temperature of 50o C, the above figures shall be about 3% higher and for a temperature of 70oC about 3% lower.
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Standards for LT lines


Length of 415 volts line corresponding to different loads ________________________________________________________________________ Size of KW-KM for 8% Maximum of Load that conductor voltage drop at length of can be (with at 0.8 PF line connected code No.) (KM) (KW) ________________________________________________________________________ 30 MM2 ACSR 11.76 1.6 7.35 Rabbit 20 MM2 ACSR 7.86 1.0 4.86 Weasel 13 MM2 ACSR 5.58 1.0 5.58 30 MM2 AAC ANT 12.06 1.6 7.54 2 16 MM Gnat 6.96 1.0 6.96 ________________________________________________________________________ The figures are for a conductor temperature of 60 C. For a conductor temperature of

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Causes for technical losses (Contd.)


Wrong location of DTRs DTRs are not located centrally & farthest consumers face low voltages For every 10% voltage drop losses increase by 21% and for every 20% voltage drop losses increase by 44% DTRs to be relocated at load centre to minimise losses.
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Causes for technical losses (Contd.)


Over rated DTRs Under loaded DTRs are a source for high avoidable iron losses Taking village as a unit the loads can be readjusted among all DTRs in the village for optimal use of installed capacity

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Causes for technical losses (Contd.)


Low Voltage Pockets
Where as the permissible voltage variations are 6% the voltages at some points go below 10% and in rare cases even more. Full load current drawn by motors go up by 15% for every 10% drop in voltage On load tap changers are not made use of due to certain inhibitions
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Causes for technical losses (Contd.)


Low Power Factor
In majority of Distribution circuits the p. f is between 0.65 & 0.75 Low p. f. contributes to high distribution losses When shunt capacitors of adequate rating are fixed at load end, experiments showed 10% improvement in voltage 20% reduction in current 6% overall reduction in energy.
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Causes for technical losses (Contd.)


Bad workmanship
Bad joints are a source of power loss Proper jointing techniques should be adopted for firm connection Connections at line jumpers, Trs. bushing rods, drop-out fuses, isolators, LT switch etc shall be periodically inspected. Timely replacement of deteriorated wires, worn out clamps etc
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

(Integrated optimum System Planning)

IOSP

An integrated approach towards optimum system planning for prioritizing the works is as follows Reconfiguration Change of feed from one source to another Reconductoring Enhancing conductor size by replacement or conversion to double circuit Shunt / series capacitor (switched / unswitched) Auto Booster Additional link lines Combination of two or more of the above
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

IOSP

(Contd)

For each of the approach as above LRVI (Loss Reduction & Voltage Improvement) are determined Cost benefit ratio is calculated and least cost option for maximum LRVI is selected. IT IS IMPORTANT TO CONDUCT THESE STUDIES FOR LOAD GROWTH UPTO 5 YEAR HORIZON.
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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Software packages available


Hardware
Work Stations Plotters Digitisers Printers Scanners

Software packages available


CADPAW, CAD PAD DINIS PRAO CYME DPA PSS SINIX DISBUT CAPSI DISTPLAN POWER NET ABB, USA ICL, UK EDF, France CYME inc., Canada SCOTT & SOOTT, USA Power Technologies Siemens, Germany APSEB WIPRO CPRI GECE

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

H. V. D. S. High Voltage Distribution System


The HT to LT ratio is now skewed due to very long LT network For 100 KVA load at 11 KV the amperage is 5 Amps where as at LT it is 140 Amps.

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Conversion of existing LVDS to HVDS

Single phase HVDS and 3 phase HVDS are both practised As majority of existing Agl. pump sets are with 3 phase motors, 3 phase HVDS is more acceptable.

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Sample results of conversion to HVDS in APSPDCL


Voltage Location Kottur Patnam Bangarupalem Losses%

Before After
350 340 320 420 420 430

Before After
18.63 16.82 16.30 5.47 5.30 3.77

Murakambattu

385

430

13.76

5.44

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Additional Benefits
Motor Burn outs drastically got reduced Fuse blow outs are practically NIL Reliability of supply has improved considerably

Consumer satisfaction has gone up.

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Steps taken to reduce commercial losses


Accurate Metering Plan (appropriate range) Correct selection of C.T. ratios High and sustained accuracy meters for high value services Intensive inspections by pooling up staff Reduce Meter exceptionals by changing defective meters One time regularisation of unauthorised services

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

Steps taken to improve MBC


Introduced spot billing through handheld computers

Networking of Electricity Revenue offices & cash collection centres


Multiple payment options

Web enabled services

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Concepts & Principles of Distribution Losses

In this Training Course


Exchange of experiences & expertise towards Reduction of Technical losses

Reduction of commercial losses


Efficiency improvement in MBC Metering, Billing & Collections. Thus reduce AT&C losses.
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THANK YOU

FOR
YOUR ATTENTION

INTERACTION INVITED
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