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BRAIN DRAIN Issues Research Policies + Interventions

Caglar Ozden DECRG January 2007

Brain Drain Issues


Growth + Development + Investment Role of Human Capital Lost Positive Externalities
Key Public Services Medical Services Education + R&D Fiscal Impact Expenditure + Lost tax Revenue

Brain Drain Issues


Are there no benefits? Remittances?? Technology transfer Return + Circular Migration Integration w/ Global Economy Other Diaspora externalities

Brain Drain Issues


Million Dollar Question Do we have the right to limit migration? Do we have the right to tell people they can not migrate?

Brain Drain Research


Most Comprehensive Database to Date (2005)

Data from 190+ countries 3 Education levels Both 1990 & 2000 New Extensions Place of Education Gender 1970 + 1980 Specific Professions - Medicine

Brain Drain
Share of Educated Population Living Abroad
Caribbean
Central America South America South Asia East Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East/North Africa Eastern Europe Western Europe North America 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5

Brain Drain
Share of Population Living Abroad
50%

40%
30% 20% 10% 0% Small Countries (<650K) Total Tertiary educated Median Large Countries (>30M)

Brain Drain
Share of Educated Labor Force
Selected Caribbean Countries

16% 14%

12%
10% 8% 6%

4%
2% 0%
Barbados Dominica Dominican Republic Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Trinidad and Tobago

Brain Drain
Share of Labor Force Living Abroad,
Selected Caribbean Countries

90% 80%

70%
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Barbados Dominica Dominican Republic Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Trinidad and Tobago

Total

Tertiary educated

Brain Drain
Share of Educated Labor Force
Selected Countries from Sub-Saharan Africa
6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0%
Gambia Ghana Kenya Madagascar Niger Nigeria Senegal Uganda Zimbabwe

Brain Drain
Share of Labor Force Living Abroad,
Selected Countries from Sub-Saharan Africa

70%
60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Gambia Ghana Kenya Madagascar Niger Nigeria Senegal Uganda Zimbabwe

Total

Tertiary educated

Brain Drain
Migrants from Developing Countries in 2000 (Mil.)
25

20

15

41% 20%

10

57%
Australia+Canada
Others

Europe
Tertiary

USA

Brain Drain
Migrants to US by Age of Migration, 2000

60%

50%

40%

30%

20%

10%

0%
Mexico Colombia Haiti El Salvador China Philippines India Poland Egypt Nigeria

0-11

12-17

18-21

Brain Drain
Migrants to France by Age of Migration, 1990
80%
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Morocco Tunisia Cote d'Ivoire Senegal 0-11 12-17 Niger 18-21 Turkey Poland Albania

Brain Drain
Physicians Emigration Rates to OECD Countries
Selected Countries from Sub-Saharan Africa
25%

20%

15%

10%

5%

0%
Gambia, The Ghana Kenya Madagascar Niger Nigeria Senegal Uganda Zimbabwe

Brain Drain

Physicians' Emigration Rates to OECD Countries


Selected Caribbean Countries

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
Barbados Dominica Dominican Republic Grenada Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis Trinidad and Tobago

Brain Waste
Percent of College Educated Migrants in Skilled Jobs in 2000
Mexico

Guatemala

United Kingdom

Russia

India

China

Kenya
0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

Brain Drain Research


Brain Gain + Brain Waste
Brain Drain + Small States Brain Drain + Economic Growth

Medical Brain Drain + HIV in Africa GHANA HEALTH SYSTEM REFORM

Brain Drain Policies + Interventions


Do we really have a problem? small + isolated countries Large developing countries Europe + Japan?
Fiscal Impact Bhagwati Tax? Turkish Military Service Exemption (if you pay!) Private Education a la the Philippines?

Brain Drain Policies + Interventions


Educational Reform Private education Mandatory service Restrictions on mobility
Services Delivery Reforming labor markets Healthcare services in Africa

Brain Drain Policies + Interventions


Destination Country Policies Should Britain limit recruitment of nurses from Africa? Mutual Recognition of Diplomas Citizenship Policies
Multilateral Policy Coordination Trade in Service why cant the patient travel? Temporary migration policies Linkages with goods trade and FDI

Brain Drain Issues


Million Dollar Question Do we have the right to limit migration? Do we have the right to tell people they can not migrate?